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What is a NAND Gate?

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 11 May 2022
 750
3 input nand gate

 

Catalog

Introduction

Related Video

Description and Pinout

Applications of NAND Gate

Universality of NAND Gate

How To

Pros and Cons

Example: Single 2-input NAND gate

FAQ

Introduction

A NAND gate is a logic gate that generates a low output (0) if all of its inputs are true and a high output (1) otherwise. As a result, the NAND gate is the inverse of the AND gate, and its circuit is created by connecting an AND gate to a NOT gate. A NAND gate, like an AND gate, can have any number of input probes but only one output probe.

 

The logical NAND operation is carried out by the NAND gate. NAND gates (along with NOR gates) are known as universal gates, which means they are a type of logic gate that can implement any Boolean function without the use of any other gate type.

 

When both inputs are logic LOW, the output is HIGH. If either input is logic LOW, the output is HIGH. It can also be stated that the output is LOW when both inputs are HIGH.

 

 

Video:What is a NAND Gate?

Video Description:

A SIMPLE explanation for what a NAND gate is. When output of an AND gate is inverted through a NOT gate, the operation is called NAND operation. The logic gate which performs this NAND operation is called NAND gate.

 

Description and Pinout

CMOS version

The standard, 4000 series, CMOS IC is the 4011, which includes four independent, two-input, NAND gates.

Figure:Diagram of the NAND Gates in a CMOS Type 4011 Integrated Circuit.

 

Availability

These devices are available from most semiconductor manufacturers such as Fairchild Semiconductor, Philips or Texas Instruments. These are usually available in both through-hole DIL and SOIC format. Datasheets are readily available in most datasheet databases.The standard 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-input NAND gates are available:

 

CMOS:

4011: Quad 2-input NAND gate

4023: Triple 3-input NAND gate

4012: Dual 4-input NAND gate

4068: Mono 8-input NAND gate

 

TTL:

7400: Quad 2-input NAND gate

7410: Triple 3-input NAND gate

7420: Dual 4-input NAND gate

7430: Mono 8-input NAND gate

 

Applications of NAND Gate

1. Burglar Alarm

Figure-Burglar-Alarm

The burglar alarm circuit is illustrated below. It includes a NAND gate and an LDR input. LDR is an abbreviation for Light Dependent Resistor. When the alarm switch is depressed, one of the NAND gate inputs goes low. And if the LDR remains lit, the second input is also low. As a result, the NAND gates' two inputs are low. As a result, if either of the two situations occurs, the output of the NAND gate becomes HIGH, and the theft alarm sounds as a warning.

 

2. Freezer Warning Buzzer

Figure-Freezer-Warning-Buzzer

When the thermistor is COLD, its resistance is HIGH, and the NAND gate's input is HIGH.The output is LOW because the NAND gate is connected as an INVERTER.As the thermistor warms up, its resistance decreases, lowering the voltage across it and lowering the input to the NAND gate.When it falls below a certain threshold, the output becomes HIGH and the buzzer sounds.

 

3. Automatic Watering System

Figure-Automatic-Watering-System

The technological advancement is useful for watering plants at night. This circuit operates only when the LDR is turned off (usually at night) and the Thermister's surrounding atmosphere is wet. This circuit includes a relay that acts as a switch, allowing the water to be pumped only when the NAND gate's two input conditions are met.

 

4. Light Activated Theft Alarm

Figure-Light-Activated-Theft-Alarm

When the switch is in position A, the buzzer remains turned off regardless of the light-dependent resistor's illumination. When the switch is closed in position B, the buzzer will activate and remain active when a brief flash of light (possibly from a burglar's torch) falls on the light-dependent resistor. Only by returning the switch to position A can the buzzer be turned off.

 

Universality of NAND Gate

The NAND Gate has a very useful property that distinguishes it from all other Gates. The NAND Gate alone can realize all possible Boolean expressions without the need for any other Gate, allowing any complexity of Boolean expression to be implemented. This property of the NAND Gate is known as Functional Completeness; because of this property, the entire microprocessor can be designed using only the NAND Gate! This property is shared by NAND and NOR gates, and both are referred to as Universal Gates.

 

How To

How To Make a NOT gate from NAND gates

When both inputs of a two-input NAND gate are zero, the output is one; when both inputs are one, the output is zero. As a result, a NOT gate can be easily realized from NAND gates simply by applying common inputs to the NAND gate or by short-circuiting all of the NAND gate's input terminals.

 

Figure-Make-a-NOT-gate-from-NAND-gates

 

How To Make an AND gate from NAND gates

A NAND gate is a NOT gate followed by an AND gate, so if we can cancel the effect of NOT gate in a NAND gate, it will become an AND gate. Hence, a NOT gate followed by a NAND gate realizes an AND gate.

 

Figure-Make-an-AND-gate-from-NAND-gates

 

Pros and Cons

The NAND gate pros are given below:

1. NAND gates are low-cost devices with large storage capacities for their size.

2. High endurance and durability.

3. This gate has good replaceability, which means that if the flash memory becomes damaged, it can be replaced with an appropriate component.

4. NAND's memory capacity can replace large files such as USB drives, digital cameras, and tablets.

 

The NAND gate cons are given below:

When compared with the NOR gate, the NAND memory architecture and speed are less reliable.

 

Example: Single 2-input NAND gate

Description

The 74LVC1G00 is a single 2-input NAND gate. Inputs can be driven from either 3.3 V or 5 V devices. This feature allows the use of these devices as translators in mixed 3.3 V and 5 V environments. Schmitt-trigger action at all inputs makes the circuit tolerant of slower input rise and fall times. This device is fully specified for partial power down applications using IOFF. The IOFF circuitry disables the output, preventing the potentially damaging backflow current through the device when it is powered down.

 

Features and benefits

  • Wide supply voltage range from 1.65 V to 5.5 V
  • Overvoltage tolerant inputs to 5.5 V
  • High noise immunity
  • CMOS low power dissipation
  • IOFF circuitry provides partial Power-down mode operation
  • ±24 mA output drive (VCC = 3.0 V)
  • Latch-up performance exceeds 250 mA
  • Direct interface with TTL levels
  • Complies with JEDEC standard:
  • JESD8-7 (1.65 V to 1.95 V)
  • JESD8-5 (2.3 V to 2.7 V)
  • JESD8C (2.7 V to 3.6 V)
  • JESD36 (4.5 V to 5.5 V)
  • ESD protection:
  • HBM JESD22-A114F exceeds 2000 V
  • MM JESD22-A115-A exceeds 200 V
  • Multiple package options
  • Specified from -40℃to +85℃and -40℃ to +125℃

 

Functional Diagram

Figure-Logic-Symbol

 

Figure2-IEC-logic-Symbol

 

Figure-Logic-Diagram

 

FAQ

What is NAND and OR gate?

The NAND gate, also known as the "NotAND" gate, is a series connection of two basic logic gates, the AND gate and the NOT gate. The NAND and NOR gates are referred to as universal gates because they can be used to perform any of the basic operations.

 

What is the symbol of NAND gate?

The Boolean expression for a logic NAND gate is denoted by a single dot or full stop symbol, ( . ) with a line or Overline, ( ‾‾ ) over the expression to signify the NOT or logical negation of the NAND gate giving us the Boolean expression of: A.B = Q.

 

Why NAND gate is called universal gate?

NAND gates can be used to replace OR gates, as shown in the figure (The OR gate is replaced by a NAND gate with all its inputs complemented by NAND gate inverters). As a result, because it can implement the AND, OR, and NOT functions, the NAND gate is a universal gate.

 

What is the full form of NAND?

NAND is not an acronym. Instead, the term is short for "NOT AND," a boolean operator and logic gate. The NAND operator produces a FALSE value only if both values of its two inputs are TRUE.

 

Because they are less expensive and easier to design, NAND and NOR gates are more popular. Other functions such as NOT AND OR can also be easily implemented using NAND/NOR gates. As a result, NAND and NOR gates are also known as Universal Gates.

 

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