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Two Major Types of IC Packages Analyses

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 18 Jan 2021
 1480
chip package

Introduction

IC packaging refers to the material that contains a semiconductor device. The package is a case that surrounds the circuit material to protect it from corrosion or physical damage and allow mounting of the electrical contacts connecting it to the printed circuit board (PCB). Let's take a look at some of the different types of packaging options you can use to enhance your product & customer experience.

ic package types

Catalog

Introduction

Ⅰ How Do You Find the Right IC Packages?

Ⅱ What are IC Made Up of?

Ⅲ How Many Types of IC Packages Are There?

3.1Through-hole Technology (THT)

3.2 Surface-mount Technology (SMT)

3.3 Through-Hole vs Surface Mount

Ⅳ IC Packages Selection Summary


Ⅰ How Do You Find the Right IC Packages?

There was a lot of change in the way electronics components appeared or packaged, from bulky vacuum tubes to lightweight SMD ICs. Because IC packaging indicates the dimension and shape of a chip, to minimize the number of components on board, manufacturers are actively working to reduce the size of ICs, and multiple components are also being increasingly incorporated into LSI, VLSI, and ULSI designs. Almost all components are currently available in two or three different package forms, from which the engineer can pick the one that best fits device application. We will learn about the various IC package forms in this article and where they can be useful.

Types of IC | IC Package Types Explained

Ⅱ What are IC Made Up of?

Before introducing the various forms of IC packages, we can learn about the process of IC manufacturing firstly. ICs consist of monolithic, hybrid, or film circuits, as a matter of fact. The development steps for the IC are as follows:

  • Lithography
    It is a technique for defining a pattern in which a photoresist material is added to the wafer surface evenly and then baked to harden. Later, light is projected and selectively extracted via a reticulum containing mask details.
  • Etching
    The undesired materials are separated from the wafer surface.
  • Deposition
    Materials are added to the wafer through the process of Physical Vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition.
  • Chemical Mechanical Polishing
    A planarization technique by the application to the wafer surface of a chemical slurry with etchant agents.
  • Oxidation
    Oxygen (dry oxidation) or HO (wet oxidation) molecules convert silicon layers to silicon dioxide on top of the wafer in the oxidation process.
  • Ion implantation
    The most commonly used method for the semiconductor incorporation of dopant impurities. The ionized particles are accelerated and targeted at the semiconductor wafer via an electrical field.
  • Diffusion
    For annealing bombardment-induced lattice defects, a diffusion phase following ion implantation is used.

IC Design & Manufacturing Process Overview

Ⅲ How Many Types of IC Packages Are There?

A very huge variety of integrated circuits have different packaging requirements. Based on how they are placed on a circuit board, the packages are divided into two types.

3.1Through-hole Technology (THT)

  • Through-hole Mounting

They are designed to trap the lead pins on one side of the board and smolder on the other side. Compared to other forms, they are larger in scale. These are mainly used in electronic equipment to compensate for the limitations of board space and expense. One example of through-hole mount packages is dual inline packages.

  • DIP and ZIP

Through-hole mount packages come in ceramic and plastic forms to add up to the classification.
The most widely used IC packages are Dual Inline Packages (DIP). As in 28-pin ATmega328, the pins are positioned parallel to each other, extending perpendicularly and laid out on a rectangular black plastic housing. The pins are 0.1 inches apart. Additionally, because of the variation in the number of pins in various packages, the box differs in size. They range in number from 4 to 64. These pins are positioned in a way that they can be changed without short-circuiting each other or even smoldering into PCBs at the center of a breadboard.
The few common types are Plastic Dual In-Line Package (PDIP) and Molded Dual In-Line Package (MDIP). There are several types of DIP packages. It can further be categorized as:
Norm - The most prevalent packaging is this. The pins are spaced apart by 0.1". Skinny - The space between the terminal rows in this box is 7.62mm.
Shrink - Identical to the regular ones, but 1.778 mm is the lead pitch. Smaller in size, they use packaging with high pin density.
Zig-Zag in Line Packages (ZIP)- Pins are inserted perpendicular to the circuit board in this kind of package. In the box, these pins are aligned perpendicularly and are closer to each other. This style of packaging was short-lived and was primarily used in RAM chips that were dynamic. CER-DIP comprises other types of through-holed packages in which the lead pitch is 2.54 mm and the body is molded with ceramics. Also, glass is the sealing medium used here. The lead pitch of the Pin Grid Array (PGA) is 2.54 mm and the body is made of ceramic. The pins from the body are arranged vertically and can be positioned on a grid. Typically, this one fits a multi-pin kit.

through-hole technology diagram

3.2 Surface-mount Technology (SMT)

  • Surface Mount Definition

The technology of installing or positioning the components directly onto the printed circuit board surface is accompanied by surface mount packaging. While this manufacturing process helps to rapidly do stuff, it also raises the likelihood of defects. This is due to component miniaturization and also because they are placed very close to each other. This, in fact, results in the detection of the deficiency in the entire process becoming extremely significant. Again, ceramic or plastic molding is often used in Surface Mount packaging.

  • Types of SMT

The following are the various types of surface mount packages that use plastic molds:
(1) Small Outline L-leaded Package
This type has leads of the gull-wing type that draw in a L fashion from the body in either direction and can be placed directly on the frame. QFP (Quad Flat L-leaded Packages)-These are SOP-like. The only difference, however, is that the leads are drawn out in 4 directions instead of 2 and are directly placed on the frame. They even come with a heat sink and a heat spreader built in.
(2) Ball Grid Array (BGA)
A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging (a chip carrier) used for integrated circuits. BGA packages are used to permanently mount devices such as microprocessors. A BGA can provide more interconnection pins than can be put on a dual in-line or flat package. As for BGA soldering, the solder balls on the package have a very carefully controlled amount of solder, and when heated in the soldering process, the solder melts. Surface tension causes the molten solder to hold the package in the correct alignment with the circuit board, while the solder cools and solidifies.

surface mount technology (smt) diagram

3.3 Through-Hole vs Surface Mount

The two kinds of packaging have their individual advantages and disadvantages - primarily through-hole mounting and surface mounting. Here's a comparison with different variables between through-hole and surface mount devices that adjust the need for the form of IC packages.
1. Size - In contrast with through-hole packages, surface mount packages are smaller.
2. Component density - Component density as well as attachment density are comparatively higher for surface mounting packages.
3. Assembly- In contrast to through-hole packages that can not afford even the smallest of errors when making holes, minor errors are immediately corrected by the molten solders that bring components close together due to stress in surface mounting packages. This is because, once made, the alignment can not be changed.
4. Electromagnetic compatibility - The ability of various electronic devices and components, even in the presence of other devices that produce electromagnetic waves, to operate correctly. Packages for surface mounting have better EMC performance.
5. Cost - Because of automated processes, the manufacturing cost is often lower than that of through-hole packages.
Surface mount packages do not, however, operate together with a simple plugin on the breadboard. They need a pin-led carrier to be installed. Or worse, they can need special PCBs customized separately for various prototypes.

electronic components on pcb

Ⅳ IC Packages Selection Summary

ICs are put into protective packages to allow easy handling and assembly onto PCBs and to protect the devices from damage. Therefore, a suitable package type is important for ic applications. First of all, let us emphasize enough how important it is to have good packaging. To allow smooth handling and installation on the printed circuit boards, integrated circuits are placed into packages. To prevent any kind of harm and corrosion, it is extremely imperative to bring ICs into packages. The packages also assist in the dissipation of the heat generated. This is, however, the final part of the entire fabrication process. Consider certain important factors, such as assembly capacity, strength, cost, and connectivity, before deciding on the type of packaging that best suits you.
With the ever-present innovations, several kinds of semiconductor integrated circuits packages have appeared. The motive is to choose for yourself the correct type of IC package that is affordable and yet does not compromise with efficiency. Most important thing, chips with the same electronic parameters may have different package types.

 

Frequently Asked Questions about Types of IC Packages

1. What is IC package design?
IC packaging refers to the material that contains a semiconductor device. The package is a case that surrounds the circuit material to protect it from corrosion or physical damage and allow mounting of the electrical contacts connecting it to the printed circuit board (PCB).

 

2. What are the different types of IC packages?
DIP (Double In-line Package)
SOP/SOIC/SO (Small Outline Package)
QFP (Quad Flat Package)
QFN/LCC (Quad Flat Non-leaded Package)
BGA (Ball Grid Array Package)
CSP (Chip Scale Package)

 

3. What is the most common type of digital IC package?
DIP (Dual in-line packages)
DIP, short for dual in-line package, is the most common through-hole IC package you'll encounter. These little chips have two parallel rows of pins extending perpendicularly out of a rectangular, black, plastic housing.

 

4. How many types of IC are there?
Two
There are two main types of integrated circuits: digital ICs or analog ICs.

 

5. What are the types of packaging materials?
Different Types of Packaging Materials
1) Plastic. The most common packaging methods in industries is plastic.
2) Aluminum. Aluminum is widely used for products such as sodas, beer, canned goods and animal foods.
3) Cardboard. Most products that are packaged in cardboard boxes are first wrapped in another type of packaging such as bubble wrap or foam.
4) Glass
5) Foam

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