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The Best Guide to DC Power Supply

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 19 Jan 2022
 1920
24v dc power supply

Catalog

Ⅰ Introduction

Ⅱ DC Power Supply

2.1 What is a DC Power Supply?

2.2 Types of DC Power Supply

2.3 Composition and Operation

2.4 Specifications

2.5 Features

2.6 Frequently Asked Questions About DC Power Supply

Ⅲ 5V DC Power Supply

3.1 What is the 5V DC Power Supply?

3.2 Typical Applications for 5V DC Power Supplies

3.3 Frequently Asked Questions About 5V DC Power Supply

Ⅳ 12V DC Power Supply

4.1 What is the 12V DC power supply?

4.2 Typical applications for 12V DC power supplies

4.3 Frequently Asked Questions About 12V DC Power Supply

Ⅴ 24V DC Power Supply

5.1 What is the 24V Power Supply?

5.2 What is a 24V Power Supply Used for?

5.3 24V Power Supply Requirements & Considerations

5.4 What are the Features of a 24V Power Supply?

5.5 24V Power Supply Vs. 36V Power Supply

5.6 24V Power Supply Problems & Resources

5.7 Frequently Asked Questions About 24V DC Power Supply

Ⅵ Differences Between DC and AC Power Supplies

6.1 Characteristics of DC Power Supply

6.2 Characteristics of AC power supply

6.3 AC Power Supply Vs. DC Power Supply

Ⅶ How to Choose the Best DC Power Supply

Ⅰ Introduction

Any electronic system relies on power, and the power supply is what keeps it running. Choosing the correct source can be the difference between a gadget that performs at its best and one that produces inconsistent results.

 

DC to DC converters are available in addition to alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) power sources. If your system already has DC, a DC to DC converter may be a better design option than the AC mentioned below.

 

There are two types of direct current power supplies: unregulated and regulated. There are various types of regulated supply, including linear, switching, and battery-based.

 

How to Use a Power supply

Ⅱ DC Power Supply

2.1 What is a DC Power Supply?

An AC-to-DC converter takes an AC input voltage and converts it to a DC output voltage. The output voltage may contain substantial or negligible quantities of AC frequency components known as ripple voltage, which are connected to the AC input voltage frequency and the power supply's performance, depending on the application requirements. A DC-to-DC converter is a DC power supply that operates on DC input voltage.

 

How to Use a DC Power Supply

 

2.2 Types of DC Power Supply

There are mainly four types of DC power supplies: Linear power supply, Switched-mode power supply, Capacitive (transformerless) power supply, Linear regulator.

 

Linear power supply

The AC input voltage in a linear power supply flows via a power transformer before being rectified and filtered to produce a DC value. Filtering, which can be as simple as a single capacitor or as sophisticated as a pi filter, reduces the amplitude of AC mains frequency present in the rectifier output. The quantity of filtering required by the power supply is determined by the electric load's tolerance for ripple. In other cases, ripple can be completely ignored. In some battery charging applications, for example, the power supply is comprised of a transformer and a diode, with a simple resistor placed at the power supply output to limit the charging current.

 

Figure 1 Simplified block diagram of a programmable linear power supply

Figure 1: Simplified block diagram of a programmable linear power supply

 

Switched-mode power supply

The AC mains input is directly rectified and then filtered to obtain a DC voltage in a switched-mode power supply (SMPS). Electronic switching circuitry switches the resulting DC voltage on and off at a high frequency, producing an AC that passes via a high-frequency transformer or inductor. Switching occurs at a very high frequency (usually 10 kHz — 1 MHz), allowing smaller, lighter, and less expensive transformers and filter capacitors to be used than in linear power supply running at mains frequency. The high-frequency AC is rectified and filtered after the inductor or transformer secondary to create the DC output voltage. The output will be electrically isolated from the mains if the SMPS uses a properly insulated high-frequency transformer; this feature is typically required for safety.

 

Switched-mode power supplies are typically regulated, and a feedback controller monitors the current drawn by the load to keep the output voltage constant. As the power output requirements increase, the switching duty cycle increases.

 

To assist safeguard the device and the user from injury, SMPSs often include safety measures like a current limitation or a crowbar circuit. When a switched-mode supply detects an abnormally high-current power draw, it can presume it's a direct short and shut down before any damage is done. When anomalous supply voltages are present, PC power supplies frequently transmit a power good signal to the motherboard; the absence of this signal prohibits operation.

 

The minimum current output of some SMPSs is set to an absolute maximum. They can only produce electricity above a certain threshold and are unable to function below that threshold. The frequency of the power slicing circuit climbs to a high rate in a no-load condition, leading the isolated transformer to operate as a Tesla coil, causing damage due to the very high voltage power spikes that result. When no load is detected, switched-mode supply with protection circuits may momentarily turn on before shutting off. To allow the supply to run without a primary load, a very modest low-power dummy load, such as a ceramic power resistor or a 10-watt light bulb, can be connected to it.

 

Computer switch-mode power supplies have traditionally had low power factors and have been substantial sources of line interference (due to induced power line harmonics and transients). The input stage of a simple switch-mode power supply can distort the line voltage waveform, causing problems for other loads (and poor power quality for other utility customers), as well as excessive heating in wires and distribution equipment. Customers also pay more for electricity when they use lower power factor loads. Some computer switch-mode power supply conducts power factor adjustment and may use input filters or additional switching stages to prevent line interference to avoid these issues.

 

  Linear DC Power Supply Switching DC Power Supply
Size and Weight Large transformers are required, which add significant size and weight. If necessary, higher frequencies allow for considerably smaller transformers.
Efficiency Transformer losses are the only important causes of efficiency loss if the system is not regulated. High-power uses, if regulated, will have a significant impact on efficiency. Because they behave like minuscule resistances, transistors have low switching losses. This makes it possible to run high-power applications efficiently.
Noise Voltage ripple can create significant noise in unregulated power supplies, while regulated linear AC DC power systems can have very low noise. They're useful in medical sensing applications because of this. Transistors that switch very quickly produce noise in the circuit. For audio applications, this can be filtered away or the switching frequency can be made exceedingly high, above the limit of human hearing.
Complexity In comparison to switching DC power supplies, linear DC power supplies feature fewer components and simpler circuits. Because of the additional noise generated by the transformers, massive, complex filters, as well as control and regulation circuitry for the converters, are required.

 

Capacitive (transformerless) power supply

A capacitive power supply (transformerless power supply) reduces the mains voltage to a lower AC voltage by using the reactance of a capacitor. The lowered AC voltage is then typically rectified, filtered, and controlled to produce a steady DC output voltage.

 

The mains voltage is not isolated from the output voltage. As a result, anything connected to the power source must be properly insulated to avoid exposing people and equipment to dangerous high voltage.

 

The voltage reduction capacitor must be able to resist full mains voltage and have sufficient capacitance to handle maximum load current at the rated output voltage. These limits, taken together, limit the practical applicability of this sort of supply to low-power applications.

 

Linear regulator

A linear voltage regulator's job is to convert a fluctuating DC voltage into a fixed, frequently precise, lower DC voltage. They also frequently have a current limiter to safeguard the power source and load from overcurrent (excessive, potentially destructive current).

 

Many power supply applications require a constant output voltage, however the voltage produced by many energy sources varies with changes in load impedance. Furthermore, if the energy source is an unregulated DC power supply, the output voltage will fluctuate with the input voltage. To avoid this, some power supplies use a linear voltage regulator to keep the output voltage constant, regardless of input voltage or load impedance variations. Linear regulators can also lower the magnitude of output voltage ripple and noise.

 

2.3 Composition and Operation

A common DC power supply will be used to demonstrate the general construction of a power supply. As illustrated in the diagram, a basic DC power supply can be constructed using four circuits (or sections), with each block representing a single circuit that performs a certain function.

 

Figure 2 Electrician Training - Integrated Publishing

Figure 2: Electrician Training - Integrated Publishing

 

Transformer - The transformer's input is often an AC signal created by a line voltage, such as power from an electric outlet. The primary function of the transformer is to step down (lower the amplitude) or step up (raise the amplitude) the signal to create the necessary DC level at the power supply's output. The transformer can also be used as an isolator. In many applications, it's critical to separate the input AC signal from the device's internal signals.

 

Rectifier - The rectifier receives the signal from the transformer's output. A rectified pulsing DC signal is provided by this device. A half-wave rectifier or a full-wave rectifier can be used. A pulsing DC signal is a voltage or current signal that does not change polarity but has a time-dependent magnitude. Diodes and resistors are commonly used in rectifiers.

 

Filter - A filter is required to transform a pulsing DC signal into a non-pulsating DC signal. In most cases, a simple capacitor filter is sufficient. The filter's output is DC voltage, which typically contains some ripple and slight AC changes.

 

Regulator - The regulator serves two purposes:

(1) to smooth the signal from the filter, resulting in a DC signal with no ripples;

(2) to maintain a constant voltage at the output.

Regardless of changes in the input voltage or the load, the voltage at the regulator's output remains constant (not shown in the diagram).

 

The conversion of a 115 V(RMS) signal to a constant 110 V(DC) voltage is shown in the accompanying image to demonstrate the four steps or blocks required to create a DC voltage from a line voltage.

 

Figure 3 Electrician Training - Integrated Publishing

Figure 3: Electrician Training - Integrated Publishing

 

2.4 Specifications

Many parameters are required to completely characterize a power supply; nevertheless, there are a set of parameters that are common to most power supply types. Input and output voltages (in volts [V]), output current (in amps [A]), rated output power (in watts [W]), input signal frequency (in Hertz [Hz], kilohertz [kHz], or megahertz [MHz]), and regulation are all examples.

 

  • Input voltageis the magnitude and type of the voltage applied to the power supply.
  • Input frequencyis the frequency of the input signal.
  • Output voltageis the magnitude of the DC voltage at the output of the device.
  • Output currentis the current associated with the output voltage.
  • Output poweris the power (in watts) delivered to the load.
  • Regulationindicates the stability of the output voltage.
  • Line regulationis the maximum steady-state amount that the output voltage changes as a result of a specified change in input line voltage.
  • Load regulation is the maximum steady-state amount that the output voltage changes as a result of a specified change in load.

 

Mounting requirements are less important, but they should be considered if the power supply is to be appropriately fitted to the application or system. There are several mounting solutions available, including:

 

  • Board mount
  • Circuit mount
  • Wall mount
  • DIN rail mount
  • Rack mount
  • Desktop

 

2.5 Features

DC power supplies have extra features like circuit protection and cooling, which might be useful in certain situations.

 

DC power supply' performance and/or physical integrity can be influenced by several factors. Normally, circuits that protect the power supplies are built into the device's design and construction. Here are a few examples:

 

  • Short circuit protection
  • Overload protection
  • Over current protection
  • Over voltage protection
  • Under voltage protection
  • Over temperature protection

 

Several cooling methods are used to protect DC power supplies:

 

  • Fan cooling
  • Heat sink cooling
  • Water cooling

 

DC power supplies can also incorporate a number of other features:

 

  • Battery backup
  • Hot swappable
  • Power factor correction
  • Temperature compensation
  • Weatherproof

 

2.6 Frequently Asked Questions About DC Power Supply

1.What are DC power supplies used for?

The main job of an AC/DC power supply is to transform the alternating current (AC) into a stable direct current (DC) voltage, which can then be used to power different electrical devices. Alternating current is used to transport electric power all across the electric grid, from generators to end users.

 

2.Why is a DC power supply needed?

A DC power supply is used by engineers to test a component, circuit or electronic device, such as IoT devices, medical products, mobile phones, and remote industrial sensors. The DC power supply allows engineers to set and supply specific voltages to power the device to confirm it’s working as intended.

 

3.What is the difference between AC and DC power supply?

In direct current (DC), the electric charge (current) only flows in one direction. Electric charge in alternating current (AC), on the other hand, changes direction periodically.

 

4.How do you use a DC power supply?

A DC power supply is easy to use. These instruments connect to a device that’s being tested via leads that are inserted into the DC power supply panel. Using the front panel display, engineers can set voltages or current levels to power the device for testing.

 

5.How does a DC power supply work?

A DC power supply works by providing a regulated direct current to power a component, module, or device. Most DC power supplies have two modes of operation. In Constant Voltage (CV) mode, the power supply controls the output voltage based on the user settings. In Constant Current (CC) mode, the power supply regulates the current.

 

6.What type of power supply reduces the mains voltage to a lower AC voltage?

linear voltage regulator

 

7.What do linear voltage regulators often have to protect the power source and load from overcurrent?

current limiter

 

8.What do many power supply applications require?

constant output voltage

 

9.What happens when the output voltage fluctuates with the input voltage?

if the energy source is an unregulated DC power supply

 

10.What do some power supplies use to keep the output voltage constant?

a linear voltage regulator

 

11.What can lower the magnitude of output voltage ripple and noise?

Linear regulators

 

12.How can a basic DC power supply be constructed?

four circuits (or sections)

 

Ⅲ 5V DC Power Supply

3.1 What is the 5V DC Power Supply?

One of the most prevalent power sources in use today is the 5V power supply (sometimes known as a 5V DC power supply). Using a mixture of transformers, diodes, and transistors, a 5V DC output can be generated from a 50V AC or 240V AC input. There are two types of 5V power supplies: regulated 5V power supplies and unregulated 5V power supplies. Switching regulated AC to DC, Linear regulated AC to DC, and Switching regulated DC to DC are the three types of 5V regulated power supply.

 

5V DC power supply

 

Switching regulated 5V DC power supplies, also known as SMPS power supplies, switchers, or switched-mode power supplies, use a complicated high-frequency switching technology that includes pulse width modulation and feedback to regulate the 5V DC output voltage. To reduce common and differential mode noise conveyed to the line and load, switching regulated power supply uses significant EMI filtering and shielding. Our 5V DC switchers come with galvanic isolation as standard, giving our customers input to output and output to ground isolation for optimum versatility. Switching regulated power supplies are very efficient, tiny, and light, and come in AC-DC single and wide-adjust output, as well as DC-DC, variants. Our Low Profile broad adjust output switchers are externally programmed and can be voltage or current regulated.

 

A dissipative regulating circuit regulates the output of linear regulated 5V DC power sources. They are exceedingly stable, have very minimal ripple, and do not create EMI due to switching frequencies. Our 5V DC linears come with galvanic isolation as standard, giving our customers input to output and output to ground isolation for optimum flexibility. AC to DC single and broad adjust output linear regulated power supplies are provided.

 

Basic power sources with an AC input and an unregulated 5V DC output are known as unregulated 5V DC power supplies. The output voltage is affected by the input voltage as well as the load. These power supplies are both affordable and dependable.

 

3.2 Typical Applications for 5V DC Power Supplies 

  • Industrial automation
  • TTL circuit power
  • Precision control circuits
  • Research projects

 

3.3 Frequently Asked Questions About 5V DC Power Supply

1.What does 5V DC mean?

DC 5V/2A, means that the input voltage, to recharge the battery is 5 volts of direct current. It has two outputs, one 2.1A USB (for tablets and Raspberry Pi and high-current devices, the other 1A USB for phones and smaller devices.

 

2.Can I use a 12V power supply on a 5V device?

The device will very likely burn out. In addition, depending on what the device is and the capacity of the 12V supply, connecting a 12V supply to a device rated 5V max could lead to a hazard - fire, explosion, etc. Mostly it will get damaged.

 

3.What is the difference between 5V and 12V?

The main disadvantage of the 5V system is that voltage drop is a more significant limiting factor. However 5V systems are much more power efficient than 12V systems; a 5V linear system will always be 2.4 times more efficient than it's equivalent 12V system.

 

12V DC Power Supply

4.1 What is the 12V DC power supply?

One of the most prevalent power sources in use today is 12V power supplies (or 12V DC power supplies). A combination of transformers, diodes, and transistors is used to generate a 12V DC output from a 120V AC or 240V AC input. There are two types of 12V power supplies: 12V regulated power supplies and 12V unregulated power supplies. Switching regulated AC to DC. Linear regulated AC to DC, and Switching regulated DC to DC are the three types of 12V regulated power supply.

 

How does a modern Power Supply work?

 

Switching regulated 12V DC power supplies, also known as SMPS power supplies, switchers, or switched-mode power supplies, use a complicated high-frequency switching technology that includes pulse width modulation and feedback to regulate the 12V DC output voltage. To reduce common and differential mode noise conveyed to the line and load, switching regulated power supply uses significant EMI filtering and shielding. Our 12V DC switchers come with galvanic isolation as standard, giving our customers  input to output and output to ground isolation for optimum versatility. Switching regulated power supplies are very efficient, tiny, and light, and come in  AC-DC single and wide-adjust output, as well as DC-DC variants. Our Low Profile broad adjust output switchers are externally programmed and can be voltage or current-regulated.

 

A dissipative regulating circuit regulates the output of linear regulated 12V DC power sources. They are exceedingly stable, have very minimal ripple, and do not create EMI due to switching frequencies. Our 12V DC linears come with galvanic isolation as standard, giving our customers input to output and output to ground isolation for optimum flexibility. AC to DC single and broad adjust output linear regulated power supplies are provided.

 

Basic power sources with an AC input and an unregulated 12V DC output are known as uncontrolled 12V DC power supplies. The output voltage is affected by the input voltage as well as the load. These power supplies are both affordable and dependable.

 

4.2 Typical applications for 12V DC power supplies

  • Computer Peripherals and Networking Applications
  • Telecommunications and Fiber optic Network
  • Voice, Data and Analog Communications
  • Universities and Educational Facilities
  • Instrumentation and Electronics
  • Utility and Power Industries
  • Data Acquisition
  • Medical
  • Military
  • Motor control

 

4.3 Frequently Asked Questions About 12V DC Power Supply

1.How do you make a 12V DC power supply?

Things that you will need to make this power supply is:

  • Piece of veroboard
  • Four 1N4001 diodes
  • LM7812 regulator
  • Transformer that has an output of 14v - 35v AC with an output current between 100mA to 1A, depending how much power you will need. (I found a 16v 200mA transformer in a broken alarm clock.)
  • 1000uF - 4700uF capacitor
  • 1uF capacitor
  • Two 100nF capacitors
  • Jumper wires (I used some plain wire as jumper wires)
  • Heatsink (optional)

 

2.Is 12V AC the same as 12V DC?

12V DC is safer than 12V AC. Body resistance decreased when the 12V AC still may cause the dead, 12V DC will not be in 100%. However, the hazard degree of electric shock to the human body mainly depends on the size of the current passing through the human body and the length of the energization time.

 

3.What is DC 12V input?

12V power supply is one of the most common power supplies in use at present. In general, a 12V DC output is obtained from a 100VAC-277VAC input using a combination of transformers,12V power supplies can be of two types: 12V constant power supplies, and 12V unconstant power supplies.

 

4.Can I use a 9V power supply on a 12V?

It depends on whether your power supply is regulated. If you need regulated (stable) 12V, and the 9V supply is unregulated, it could give you up to 14V or slightly higher when not loaded.

 

5.Can I use a 12V power supply on a 15V?

Assuming the polarity is correct, plugging in a 12V input to a device requiring 15V won't do any damage, however if you undervolt an amplifier, you may get clipping or other distortion.

 

6.How do you convert 12V DC to 6V DC?

It's possible to step 12 volts down to 6 volts by incorporating a pair of 10,000-ohm resistors into the circuit. Cut two lengths of wire, and strip each wire of 1/2 inch of insulation at each end. Attach one end of the first wire to the positive terminal on the power supply.

 

7.Can I use a 19V power supply on a 12V?

Any device that was designed to run at 12V is likely to be fried by 19V. It might catch fire, even though it's not very likely. You must have an equal or higher current rating in order to use an AC adapter.

 

Ⅴ 24V DC Power Supply

5.1 What is the 24V Power Supply?

A power supply with a voltage of 24 volts can convert AC to DC. The voltage level can be modified at the same time as the AC power is converted to DC power. Some gadgets require DC, although they only have access to AC from the wall. This adjustment is simple to do using the 24V power supply. A DC power supply is an economical and effective alternative in locations where AC power is not available.

 

How to Make 24 Volt Power Supply

 

5.2 What is a 24V Power Supply Used for?

A power supply with a voltage of 24 volts can be utilized in a variety of applications. The 24V supply could be a useful solution whenever an object requires power. Although we usually think of a 24V Power Supply as being utilized on a building site or in the workplace, it has a variety of additional uses. A 24V power source is required in many audio and lighting scenarios.

 

In addition, medical and communication difficulties may necessitate the usage of a 24V power supply. Power supplies are usually compact and can be a relatively portable solution to a problem. The 24V power supply has a wide range of applications.

 

5.3 24V Power Supply Requirements & Considerations

There are various factors to consider while selecting a 24V Power Supply. Check to see if the device you need to power is compatible with the power supply you buy.

 

Input Voltage & Output Voltage

The output range of a power supply will vary substantially depending on the input voltage. You'll need to make sure you get a 24V power supply with the right voltage range. The longer the range, the more expensive the device will be in general.

 

Power Rating

Watts will be used to determine the power rating. Some of the smaller units will have an output of around 80 watts, while the larger ones will be closer to 1000 watts. Keep in mind that certain 24V Power Supplies are designed for light-duty industrial use, while others are designed for heavy-duty industrial use. Make sure you get a power source that meets your requirements.

 

5.4 What are the Features of a 24V Power Supply?

To get the most out of your equipment purchase, it's critical to grasp the features of a 24V power supply. The many output ports and the consistent power supply are three things to be aware of. The 24V power supply's combination of qualities is what makes it so beneficial to its users.

 

Multiple Output Ports

The majority of the 24V power supply includes many outputs. In most cases, one output is insufficient to complete the task. Consider setting up audio equipment with the 24V power supply. One output, without a doubt, will not suffice. The majority of 24V power supplies will offer two or three options. When there are many output ports, you should be able to specify voltage restrictions and even timings to help you regulate whatever is attached to the output ports. Overall, if you're going to buy a 24V power supply, you should go for one that has numerous output ports.

 

Programmable

Many of the 24V power sources on the market today can be programmed. This implies you can use them with a computer system for product setup and testing. This is critical for medical applications as well as light and audio. With higher-end equipment, the programmability of the 24V power supply will become more sophisticated. Some of the basic programmability is simple enough for a layperson to understand.

 

Constant Voltage Power Supply

A 24V power supply can be mounted to provide backup power to a region that isn't getting enough power. On your power supply, you can choose the required voltage and maximum current for the load. The 24V power supply is an excellent choice in circumstances where steady power is required. Many users consider these to be extremely valuable and dependable pieces of gear.

 

5.5 24V Power Supply Vs. 36V Power Supply

When picking a power source for your project, a higher voltage is usually the better option. The higher voltage can do more and create better outcomes, but your system must be able to manage the additional voltage. When electricity is not restricted, the difference in these additional 12 volts of power might cause damage. Before determining that more is better, make sure that everything will function together well.

 

5.6 24V Power Supply Problems & Resources

Damage occurs, but it is frequently repairable. People's largest problem with power supplies is that they aren't installed and put together correctly. You must comprehend what the 24V power source, ground, output, and other components entail. Make sure the process is set up appropriately, and you should have fewer issues with this resource in the long run. If you're having trouble with a 24V power supply, electricians and programmers are usually well-versed on how to get the most out of one.

 

5.7 Frequently Asked Questions About 24V DC Power Supply

1.Can I use a 12V power supply on a 24V?

Going the other way - 24V LED strips on a 12V power supply

If you're trying to go the other way and connect a 12V power supply to operate 24V LED strips, unfortunately, you are out of luck. You'll need to purchase a transformer or voltage booster, or, more straightforwardly, a 24V power supply.

 

2.Can I use 24V AC for 24V DC?

24 volt AC/DC converters with 19 to 28V AC input. These are also known as 24 volt rectifiers, and voltage regulators. They can be used whenever 24V AC power is available and 24V DC power is needed, up to 60 watts.

 

3.Can I use a 19V power supply on a 24V?

As long as the adapter can supply as much or more than the device needs, you're good. Attaching an adapter to a device that needs more current than it can supply will likely damage the adapter.

 

Ⅵ Differences Between DC and AC Power Supplies

6.1 Characteristics of DC Power Supply

The advantages and disadvantages of direct current, in which electricity always flows in the same direction, are as follows.

 

The direction of the current in alternating current is constantly changing. As a result, when a capacitor or inductor is used in the circuit, the current flowing to the load is delayed or advanced in proportion to the voltage behavior.

 

The voltage and direction of the current are always constant with direct current, therefore the behavior of the capacitors and coils is also consistent. As a result, there is no advance or delay in the circuit in DC.

 

Because the direction of the current is shifted in alternating current (AC), not all of the electricity travels through the load, and some power is generated simply passing back and forth between the load and the power source. This is referred to as reactive power.

 

Because the current runs in a consistent direction, all electricity goes through the load in direct current. A scallop is being pushed out in this photograph. As a result, no reactive power is generated, allowing power to be used more efficiently.

 

Another benefit of direct current is that it may be stored in batteries, capacitors, and other devices.

 

Direct current, on the other hand, has several drawbacks. One of them is that interrupting the current is difficult. Because the direct current is always subjected to a constant voltage, particularly when the voltage is high, problems such as arcs (sparks) may arise at the point of interruption, or there may be a risk of electric shock in the immediate vicinity.

 

When the voltage changes from positive to negative or negative to positive in alternating current, the voltage drops to zero for a brief duration. You can interrupt the current more safely than with a direct current if you aim for a time when the voltage is low.

 

In addition, while converting DC voltage, it must first be converted to AC and then back to DC. As a result, DC voltage conversion equipment is larger and more expensive than AC voltage conversion equipment.

 

The severe corrosion of subterranean pipes and insulators necessary for electricity transmission is another downside of direct current. Because DC continually flows in the same direction, electrostatic induction and electrical corrosion cause power transmission equipment to corrode.

 

Direct current is what comes out of batteries, capacitors, and other stored objects. As a result, battery-powered products are compatible with direct current.

 

The power supply in an average home, on the other hand, is AC, while DC is used in electronic equipment like computers and home appliances like televisions. The AC from the outlet is converted to DC using capacitors and other devices to power such devices.

 

However, in data centers where DC is primarily used, the installation of a DC power supply is encouraged to minimize the loss caused by the conversion of AC to DC.

 

6.2 Characteristics of AC power supply

Direct current is what comes out of batteries, capacitors, and other stored objects. As a result, battery-powered products are compatible with direct current.

 

The power supply in an average home, on the other hand, is AC, while DC is used in electronic equipment like computers and home appliances like televisions. The AC from the outlet is converted to DC using capacitors and other devices to power such devices.

 

However, in data centers where DC is primarily used, the installation of a DC power supply is encouraged to minimize the loss caused by the conversion of AC to DC.

 

For example, if you need 3000W (watts) of power, you'll need 30A (amperes) of current if the voltage is 100V, but only 3A if the voltage is 1000V.

 

In other words, if the voltage is increased by a factor of 10, the current is lowered to 1/10, and the power loss is reduced to 1/100, or the square of 1/10. As a result, for long-distance transmission, extremely high voltages are utilized.

 

Of course, the current-voltage is unsuitable for usage in houses and workplaces. For major factories, the voltage is 100,000 volts, for buildings, it is 6600 volts, and for houses and offices, it is 200 volts or 100 volts.

 

As a result, the voltage of electricity transmitted from a power plant must be reduced to suit the region or location.

 

In comparison to direct current, alternating current can be easily changed by transformers, making it more appropriate for power distribution as infrastructure.

 

Another benefit of AC is that it is simple to shut off while electricity is being delivered, as the voltage lowers to zero at regular intervals.

 

It can also be used like a domestic power supply (outlet) without discriminating between positive and negative, making device connection and operation easier.

 

Because the voltage value is constantly changing and there are periods when the voltage dips to zero, AC requires a higher voltage than the target voltage for the required amount of heat.

 

AC voltage has a sinusoidal waveform with a maximum voltage of 2 times the running value. The effective value must be exceeded by the insulation performance and equipment standards.

 

Another feature of AC is that coils and capacitors have a significant impact on it. Coils and capacitors provide voltages that induce current to flow in the opposite direction of the current flow, causing the current to advance or lag in the circuit.

 

Alternating current electricity is created and sent to a power plant. Three AC waves are sent out at the same time at a power plant, with the waveform of the AC altered by 120 degrees. A three-phase alternating current is a name for this sort of power.

 

There are two types of air conditioners: single-phase and three-phase. A three-phase AC is utilized for high-voltage power transmission in particular. It is converted to one phase, along with the voltage conversion, when it is supplied to a residential outlet.

 

AC is used in standard power outlets and for motors that do not require precise control, such as vacuum cleaners and ventilation fans.

 

Motors for air conditioners, washing machines, refrigerators, and other appliances, on the other hand, do not use AC power as is, but instead need inverters for fine control.

 

6.3 AC Power Supply Vs. DC Power Supply

  Alternating Current  Direct Current
Amount of energy that can be carried It's safe to transport over greater distances in the city and can deliver more power. DC voltage can only travel so far before it starts to lose energy.
Cause of the direction of flow of electrons Rotating magnet along the wire. Steady magnetism along the wire.
Frequency Depending on the country, the frequency of alternating current is 50Hz or 60Hz. The frequency of direct current is zero.
Direction While passing through a circuit, it reverses its direction. It flows in one direction in the circuit.
Current It is the current of magnitude varying with time It is the current of constant magnitude.
Flow of Electrons Electrons alternate between forward and backward motion. Electrons move steadily in one direction or 'forward'.
Obtained from A.C Generator and mains. Cell or Battery.
Passive Parameters Impedance. Resistance only
Power Factor Lies between 0 & 1. it is always 1.
Types Sinusoidal, Trapezoidal, Triangular, Square. Pure and pulsating.

 

How to Choose the Best DC Power Supply

The most common selection criteria are:

  • Number of output channels (single or multi output)
  • Output voltage, current, and power
  • Setting resolution and accuracy
  • Ripple and noise
  • Features and programmability
  • Advanced features like current measurement with nanoamp resolution, sequencing, analog inputs, digital I/O, and  programming features

 

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