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How Do I Read Pinouts?

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 7 Apr 2021
 1868
arduino nano pinout

Introduction

In electronics, a pinout (sometimes written "pin-out") is a cross-reference between the contacts, or pins, of an electrical connector or electronic component. It describes the functions of transmitted signals and the circuit input/output (I/O) requirements. The number of pins is divided into 8-pin, 14-pin, 16-pin, etc. Every pin must be properly matched to a connector that has the same function. Pinout types include Universal Serial Bus (USB) pinout, PS/2 pinout, ATX power supply pinout, VGA pinout, and Digital Visual Interface (DVI).

How to Read Pinouts?

Catalog

Introduction

Ⅰ Pinout Arrangement Description

Ⅱ Arduino Pinout and Raspberry Pi Pinout

2.1 Arduino Nano Pinout and Arduino Uno Pinout

2.2 Arduino Pinout Series

2.3 Raspberry Pi Pinout and Diagram

2.4 Difference between an Arduino and a Raspberry Pi

Ⅲ Example: AT89S52 Pinouts


Ⅰ Pinout Arrangement Description

A pinout generally has descriptions in a diagram or table, which specifically indicates whether it is the back-side or front-side view, or if it is the mating face of the connector, or it stands for? Generally speaking, the more pins, the larger the size of the IC chip, the stronger the circuit function, and of course, the higher the price.
What these pins stand for? Look at the following Common PIC Pin Descriptions:

Pin Number

Symbol

Description

1

AUDIO

Audio Signal Output

2

FM OUT

FM Detection Output

3

IF AGC

IF Signal Input

4

RF AGC

RF AGC Voltage Output

5

IF IN

IF Signal Input

6

IF GND

IF Circuit Ground

7

IF Vcc

IF Circuit Power Supply

8

FM FILTER

FM Detector Filter Terminal

9

AFT OUT

AFT Control Power Output

10

SDA

I2C Bus Data Terminal

11

SCL

I2C Bus Clock Terminal

12

ABL

Automatic Brightness Control

13

R IN

Red Character Input

14

G IN

Green Character Input

15

B IN

Blue Character Input

16

BLACK IN

Character Blanking signal Input

17

RGB Vcc

Decoding Circuit Power Supply

18

R OUT

Red Primary Color Signal Output

19

G OUT

Green Primary Color Signal Output

20

B OUT

Blue Primary Color Signal Output

21

ID

White Balance Adjustment Signal Input

22

VER OUT

Field Sawtooth Wave Output

23

V RAMP ALC

Field Sawtooth Wave Formation

24

H/BUS Vcc

Line Start Power

25

AFC FILTER

Line AC Low-pass Filtering

26

HOR OUT

Line Excitation Pulse Output

27

FBP IN

Line and Reverse Pulse Input

28

REF

Reference Current Formation

29

CLK OUT

4MHz Clock Signal Output

 

Pin Number

Symbol

Description

30

1H DL Vcc

Built-in Baseband Delay Line +5V Power Supply

31

1H DL Vcc OUT

Baseband Delay Line Boost Circuit Output Terminal

32

1H DL GND

Baseband Delay Line Ground

33

SECAM IN

Component Signal Input

34

C APC FILTER

Chroma Subcarrier Phasedetector (APC1) Low-pass Filter

35

SECAM INTERFACE

4.43MHz CW Signal Output or SECAM Achromatic Signal Input

36

X TAL

4.43MHz Crystal Terminal

37

SEL VIDEO OUT

Video Output

38

V/C/DEF GND

Ground

39

EXT V IN/Y IN

AV Video or Y Signal Input Terminal

40

V/C/DEF Vcc

Video/Chroma/Scan Part Power

41

INT V IN/C IN

AV Video or C Signal Input Terminal

42

BLACK STECH

Filter End of Black Level Extension Circuit

43

VIDEO OUT

Video Detector Output

44

VCO FILTER

IF Lock Detection Filter

45

VCO

External VCO Resonant Network

46

PIF APC

IF APC Filter

47

EXT AUDIO IN

AV Audio Signal Input

48

SIF OUT

Audio Accompanying Sound IF Output

49

SIF IN

Audio Accompanying Sound IF Input

50

SND APC

Accompanying Sound Discrimination Filter

 

Pin Number

Symbol

Description

1

BASS

Bass Control Output

2

MUTE

Mute (High Level) Control Output

3

50/60

50Hz/60Hz Identification Output

4

SECAM

SECAM Recognition

5

VOL

Volume Control

6

COMB.F

Digital Filter on/off Control

7

POWER

Power On/Standby Control

8

TUNE

PWM Tuning Voltage Output

9

GND

Ground

10

XTAL1

32kHz Crystal Connection Terminal

11

XTAL2

32kHz Crystal Connection Terminal

12

VDD

Power Supply

13

KEY-IN1

Key Scan Signal Input 1

14

KEY-IN2

Key Scan Signal Input 2

15

AFT-IN

AFT Control Voltage Input

16

RESET

Reset Terminal

17

FILTER

Character Oscillation Low Pass Filter

18

NC

Empty Pin

19

V-SYNC

Character Vertical Positioning Pulse Input

20

H-SYNC

Character Horizontal Positioning Pulse Input

21

OSD-BLK

Character Blanking Pulse Output

22

SDA

I2C Bus Data Terminal

23

SCL

I2C Bus Clock End

24

SAFTY

Overload Detection Terminal

25

CS

Production Debugging Chipselect Signal Input Terminal

26

REM IN

Remote Control Signal Input

27

SIF

Audio IF Switching Control

28

TV/AV1

AV/TV Switch

29

TV/AV2

AV/TV Switch

30

3.58/4.43

3.58/4.43 Control

31

UHF

UHF Band Control

32

VH

VHF-H Band Control

33

VL

VHF-L Band Control


Ⅱ Arduino Pinout and Raspberry Pi Pinout

2.1 Arduino Nano Pinout and Arduino Uno Pinout

The Arduino Nano is a small, complete, and breadboard-friendly board. It is based on the ATmega328 8-bit microcontroller by Atmel. It has a total of 36 pins. Out of these 8 are analog input pins and 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs). Nano has a 16 MHz SMD crystal resonator, a mini USB-B port, an ICSP header, 3 RESET pins and, a RESET button. The Arduino digital pins can read/output only two states: when there is a voltage signal and when there is no signal.

atmega328 pinout

Figure 1. ATMEGA328 Pinout


Arduino UNO is based on the ATMEGA328 by Atmel. The Arduino UNO pinout consists of 14 digital pins, 6 analog inputs, a power jack, USB connection and ICSP header. The function of Analog pins is to read the value of the analog/digital input used in the connection.

arduino uno pinout

Figure 2. Arduino UNO Pinout

2.2 Arduino Pinout Series

Digital Pins
Power:
  Mini USB
  Vin
ICSP:
  MISO (Master In Slave Out)
  Vcc (Supply Voltage)
  SCK (Clock from Master to Slave)
  MOSI (Master Out Slave In)
  RST (Reset (Active Low)
  GND (Supply Ground)
Serial Communication Pins
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) Pins
External Interrupts
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) pins
Blinking LED

 

Analog Pins
RESET
I2C Protocol
AREF (Analog Reference) Pins
Power

2.3 Raspberry Pi Pinout and Diagram

The Raspberry Pi is a tiny and affordable computer that you can use to learn programming through fun, practical projects, which is the go-to microcomputer for all ages and abilities. You can plugs it into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. Over the years the header has expanded from 26 pins to 40 pins while maintaining the original pinout. As you can see, the Pi not only gives you access to the bi-directional I/O pins, but also Serial (UART), I2C, SPI, and even some PWM ("analog output").

raspberry pi GPIO pinout

Figure 3. Raspberry Pi GPIO Pinout

Raspberry Pi is as small as the size of a credit card, and works as if a normal computer at a relatively low price. It is possible to work as a low-cost server to handle light internal or web traffic. What’s more, grouping a set of Raspberry Pi to work as a server is more cost-effective than a normal server. Although Raspberry Pi board has so many advantages, it also has the following disadvantages:
1) Not able to run Windows Operating system
2) Impractical as a Desktop Computer
3) Graphics Processor Missing
4) Missing eMMC Internal Storage

2.4 Difference between an Arduino and a Raspberry Pi

The main difference between them is: Arduino is microcontroller board, while Raspberry Pi is a microprocessor based mini computer (SBC). The Microcontroller on the Arduino board contains the CPU, RAM and ROM. ... Raspberry Pi needs an Operating System to run. Arduino doesn't need any operating system.
If you're coming to the Raspberry Pi as an Arduino user, you're probably used to referencing pins with a single, unique number. Programming the Pi's hardware works much the same, each pin has its own number...and then some.

Ⅲ Example: AT89S52 Pinouts

The pin functions of AT89S52 are diverse. For example, the intermediate frequency signal can be demodulated from the pin to the internal FM circuit in an unbalanced manner. At the same time, it is also the control pin for AV\TV conversion and PAL, NTSC, SECAM chroma system conversion in the block, and its input impedance is about 3.4K.

AT89S52 Pinouts

Figure 4. AT89S52 Pinouts


1) For Recognition Output
The pin outputs image recognition signal in OC gate mode. When the video TV signal has been received, this pin presents high impedance to the outside, and a high level signal can be obtained through an external pull-up resistor; when no signal is received, this pin presents a low impedance and outputs a low level.
2) As APC1 Filter Terminal
The chip generates a 38MHz switching signal in an oscillating manner to complete the demodulation of the image IF signal. Whether the generated switching signal is accurate depends on the automatic phase control circuit (APC) control. Among them, the filtering of the APC1 error signal is completed on this pin.
3) As APC2 Filter Terminal
The filter terminal of the second-stage APC circuit
4) An external pin for the quartz crystal oscillator
The external quartz crystal and internal circuit will oscillate in the form of series resonance. The oscillation frequency is a quarter of the carrier frequency of the image intermediate frequency signal. The frequency of the quartz crystal required is different under different signal systems.
5) For AFT Signal Output
The image IF signal compare with the internal frequency, and then the pin outputs AFT error signal.
6) Full TV Signal Output
The signal in the image is demodulated, and finally the video signal and the accompany audio intermediate frequency signal are output from the pin, and the output signal level is 2V.
7) Radio Frequency AGC Delay Adjustment
By adjusting the external potentiometer, the AGC delay amount can be adjusted.
8) For the Input of Internal and External Video Signals
The signal input needs to be separated from the DC. The coupling capacitor capacity is 1uF. When the internal input level is the peak, the max value is 2V. And when the external input is the peak and the peak is 1V. The input impedance is about 50kΩ. Inside the integrated circuit, the blanking level is fixed at 4.5V.
9) The Output of Contrast Control Voltage can also be used to control ACL.
10) The pin is the standard level of the built-in filter and the switch of S-VHS. It needs a 1Uf capacitor to be grounded to set the standard level. When it is in the S-VHS mode, the pin voltage must be led by an external circuit is set below 2V. When it is in the normal AV state, the voltage level should be set above 2V.
11) Input Pin for S-VHS Chroma Signal and DC Control
When inputting chroma signal, a 0.01Uf capacitor should be used to cut off the DC input. At PAL format, the chroma signal level should be 300mV peak-to-peak, and should be 286mV peak-to-peak under the NTSC system.
12) As a Delayed Video Signal Output
It can also achieve ABL control. The output video signal level is 2V peak-to-peak, and a current of 0.5mA or more is necessary.
13) The Output of the Decolorization Control
After the internal decolorization circuit is activated, a low-level signal will be output from the pin.
14) Address Input for Analog Bus Control
15) Data Input of Analog Bus Control
16) The Output of the Internal Field Scanning Pulse
The external resistance value can set the sensitivity of the internal field synchronization separation. If you don't need the internal field pulse, you can also input other field pulse signals from the pin, and the internal field output is automatically cut off at this time. The pin can also be an automatic trigger mode release switch and a row AFC strobe release switch.
17) To connect the oscillating quartz crystal
The crystal frequency should be 500Hz.
18) Separate power supply pins for line oscillation and line pre-excitation circuits. 
A higher voltage provides a DC voltage to the pin through a resistor, which is stabilized to 7V by the internal voltage regulator circuit for use by the above circuits. The selection calculation of resistance is: R1=(+B1-7.0V)/13mA.
19) The output of line pre-excitation pulse is output in push-pull mode.
20) Line and Reverse Pulse Input
The line and reverse pulse signal is output from this pin after forming a sand castle pulse internally. As a unified working sequence of some circuits, this pin is also the output of the integrated circuit pulse in the SECAM system.
21) Character Background Blanking Pulse Input
The standard control voltage is 1V, when the input voltage is higher than 1V, the image display stops, and the character is displayed at the current position. When the pin voltage is lower than 1V, the image is displayed at the current position.
22) The input of the three-color signal of the on-screen character display (OSD). 
When using the analog character display mode, the DC input needs to be cut off. When using the digital character display mode, the high level needs to be set to a certain value.
23) Negative brightness signal output, and at the same time the input of the de-trap signal.
24) Color difference signal output, respectively output the R-Y, G-Y, B-Y of the TV image or the R, G, B three-color screen character display dot matrix after character display conversion.
25) After the input of the ALC amplifier (CCD delay adjustment) is delayed and calculated by the integrated one-line delay line, the two color difference signals return to the LA7687 from these two lead pins.
26) Output the Color Difference Signal to the Integrated Delay Line.
In the PAL system, the two incompletely demodulated color difference signals are output from two pins to the delay line for further processing. When in the SECAM system, the color difference signal does not come from LA7687. Therefore, the two pins present a high impedance state under this system, and the output dc voltage is 3.6V.
27) The subcarrier recovery circuit needs to be connected to 4.43MHz and 3.58/MHz quartz crystals.
28) For the Color Demodulation Circuit APC Filter
The filter composed of the external resistance container can set the synchronization range of the subcarrier oscillation.
29) The AGC Filter Pin of the First Stage Mid Amplifier
The AGC detection circuit separates the synchronization signal by detecting the peak value of the video signal, and filters it into the AGC voltage at the pin. The second stage AGC filter is hidden inside the integrated circuit.
30) Image IF Signal Input
Through the surface acoustic filter to form a specific image IF signal, in a balanced way from  two lead pins amplify the collector circuit. Inside the integrated circuit, there are a total of three amplifiers, and the total amplification gain is above 60dB.
31) The output of the radio frequency AGC is output in an open-collector mode.
32) Audio Signal Output
The integrated circuit completes the demodulation of the FM signal, and the audio signal is output from the pin, and there should be a de-emphasis circuit composed of resistive components on the outside.
33) Audio Filter Pin
It is used to eliminate the DC feedback of the preamplifier, in addition, a 1uF capacitor is required to be connected externally. In addition, when this pin is set to high level, the image IF gets into the SECAM mode.

 

Frequently Asked Questions about Electronic Pinout

1. What does pinout mean?
In electronics, a pinout (sometimes written "pin-out") is a cross-reference between the contacts, or pins, of an electrical connector or electronic component, and their functions. "Pinout" now supersedes the term "basing diagram" that was the standard terminology used by the manufacturers of vacuum tubes and the RMA.

 

2. What is pin configuration?
Devices support both analog input and digital I/O line modes on several configurable pins. The following table provides typical parameters for the pin configuration commands (D0 - D9, P0 - P2).

 

3. What is a pinout cable?
Pinout or pin-out is a term used in electronics to describe how an electrical cable is wired, or the function of each wire (pin) in a connector. An electrical connector typically consists of several electrical contacts or pins that can be used to carry electrical power or signals.

 

4. What are the pins on Arduino Uno?
Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.

 

5. How many digital and analog pins are in Arduino Uno?
Microcontrollers

digital and analog pins

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Related Articles

pinglun 4 comments

    • pingluntus
    • RachelYe on 2021/6/8 10:00:49

    Hi, I see some with a lot of tags in one line, ie for the lopy4 ? How to read and interprete them from left to right? Are all the tags representing a pin and if on the same line meaning that they are wired ? Are Serial pins all connected ?

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2021/6/11 10:03:09
        author

      Re:

      Right, the Serial connections can be used for UART communication on TX and RX.
      We use UART0 (Pin 1 and Pin 2) for uploading new code to the device, and you are free to use UART1 and UART2 for other purposes (if you have a Fipy, UART2 will be used for the LTE modem) 😏

    • pingluntus
    • Rossenie Hork on 2021/6/15 10:48:25

    I'm really interested in making my own sleeved cables but I cant understand these pinout diagrams at all or what they're for. Am I supposed to put specific wires in specific spots on each end or something? All I see is a number for each wire (for example, 1-24 on 24 pin power connector), except sometimes theres a blank one??? In video tutorials they just put connect every wire and I guess that's supposed to work but the pinouts make it seem super complicated. Can somebody please explain this to me? I havent been able to find any explanation and I feel pretty stupid right about now.

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2021/6/16 16:28:20
        author

      Re:

      The best way to do things is to simply ONLY do one wire at a time if you are determined to do it yourself and depending on what model of power supply you have I might stringently recommend that you NOT do it yourself if it's a model that has inline capacitors. Any PSU with inline capacitors becomes either a real PITA or you end up having to shorten all of the cables in that bundle in order to eliminate the inline capacitors so then the cable doesn't have the same reach as before PLUS it will lose some of it's ability to suppress ripple, which is really not desirable but might be acceptable on units that already have exemplary ripple levels even without the inline caps. 🙂

    • pingluntus
    • Wyatt on 2021/6/18 10:52:01

    Hi, I've been trying to figure out the pinouts for a pressure sensor, the MPX5050DP (the one i have is the unibdoy package with dual ports), but the datasheet seems very ambiguous to me. Instead of risking it and possibly accidentally frying the sensor, i was wondering if someone tell me what the pinout for the sensor is.

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2021/6/19 10:32:42
        author

      Re:

      OK, so you only use pins 1, 2, 3 as Vout, Ground, and Vcc. They do nothing except provide mechanical support for the transducer when it is soldered to isolated pads on a circuit board. 😐

    • pingluntus
    • Peyton on 2021/7/3 15:13:02

    I've seen pinouts of the 6507 and the 6502 pinouts and they all have memory info and I want to know how to read a pinout.

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2021/7/6 10:11:37
        author

      Re:

      I'm not sure what you mean-- can you elaborate?
      As I understand it, a "pinout" is just a diagram or list that shows what the pins or lines are on a chip and what they're used for. An example of a 6502 pinout is shown below. I drew it myself in Paint, using many essentially identical pinouts from different sources-- the only real differences between them being the precise way the pins are labeled (such as "AB0" versus "A0," or other minor differences like that).

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