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9 Alarm Systems Circuit Design for Smart Home Devices

Author: Apogeeweb Date: 24 Dec 2020  781

smart home devices

Introduction

The circuit reflects the electrical connection of various components in electronic products and equipment, so as to help people become familiar with the circuit structure and working principle of electronic devices as soon as possible. Here, we will introduce several available home hobby circuits, with their design principles, and component selection. They will provide more convenience for your daily life.

A Simple Guide to Electronic Components in Circuits

Catalog

Introduction

Ⅰ Infrared Detection Anti-theft Alarm

Ⅱ No Smoking Warning Device

Ⅲ Simple Temperature Controller

Ⅳ Digital Thermometer

Ⅴ Automatic Fish Tank Water Temperature Controller

Ⅵ Cyclic Working Timing Controller

Ⅶ Overvoltage Automatic Power-off Device for Household Appliances

Ⅷ Fan Automatic Temperature Control Governor

Ⅸ Boiling Water Alarm


Ⅰ Infrared Detection Anti-theft Alarm

The alarm can detect infrared rays emitted by the human body, and when a person enters the monitoring area, it can sound for alarm. It is suitable for homes, offices, warehouses, laboratories and other important occasions.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

infrared detection alarm circuit

Figure 1. Infrared Detection Alarm Circuit

The device consists of an infrared sensor, a signal amplifier circuit, a voltage comparator, a delay circuit and an audio alarm circuit. When the sensor IC1 detects the infrared signal radiated by the human body in front, it outputs a weak electrical signal from the pin②. It is amplified by the first-stage amplifying circuit formed by the transistor VT1, and then input to the operational amplifier IC2 through C2 with high gain and low-noise amplification. IC3 acts as a voltage comparator. Its pin⑤ reference voltage is provided by R10 and VD1. When the signal voltage output by IC2 pin① pass to the IC3 pin⑥, the voltages of the two input terminals are compared. At this time, IC3 pin⑦ changes from the high level to the low level. IC4 is an alarm delay circuit, formed by R14 and C6. Its continuous time is about 1 minute.


When IC3 pin⑦ becomes low level, C6 discharges through VD2, IC4 pin② becomes low level,  which is compared with IC4 pin③ reference voltage. When it is lower than its reference voltage, IC4 pin① changes to high level, VT2 is turned on, and the buzzer BL is powered on and emits an alarm sound. After the infrared signal of the humans disappears, IC3 pin⑦ outputs to high level, and VD2 is cut off at this time. Since the voltage at both ends of C6 cannot change suddenly, charge C6 slowly through R14. When the voltage at both ends of C6 is higher than its reference voltages, IC4 pin① becomes low level for about 1 minute. That is, the alarm time lasts for 1 minute.


The power-on delay circuit is composed of VT3, R20, and C8. It is mainly to prevent alarming immediately when powering on, so that the user has enough time to leave the monitoring site, and at the same time can prevent a false alarm occurred during a power cut. The device uses 9-12V DC power supply, with T step-down, full-bridge rectification, and C10 filtering. The detection circuit uses IC5 for power supply, and automatic non-stop conversion with AC and DC.

 

🎃 Components Selection
IC1 adopts imported device Q74, the wavelength is 9~10um. IC2 uses op-amp LM358, which has high gain and low power consumption. IC3 and IC4 are dual voltage comparators LM393 with low power consumption and low offset voltage. Among them, C2 and C5 must use tantalum capacitors with small drain electrodes, otherwise the debugging will be affected. R12 is the key element to adjust sensitivity, and linear high-precision sealed type should be selected. Other components can be selected as shown in the circuit diagram.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
When making, a Fresnel lens is installed in front of the IC1 sensor. Since the frequency range of the human body is 0.1~10Hz, it is necessary to use the Fresnel lens to multiply the frequency of the human body. After installation finished, connect the power supply for debugging. Let a person walk about 7-10m in front of the detector, adjust R12 in the circuit, and make the buzzer alarm. As long as the other parts are of good quality and welded correctly, they can work normally without debugging. The static working current of this machine is about 10mA. It will enter the waiting state about 1 minute after the power is turned on. As long as someone enters the monitoring area, it will alarm, and stops in 1 minute. In addition, if the buzzer is changed to a relay to drive other devices, it will be used for other controls.

 

Ⅱ No Smoking Warning Device

The no-smoking warning device can be used in family rooms or various places where smoking is forbidden (such as hospitals, conference rooms, etc.). When someone smokes, the no-smoking warning device will emit a warning sound of "No Smoking!" to remind the smoker to stop smoking consciously.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

smoking alarm circuit

Figure 2. Smoke Alarm Circuit

The no-smoking warning circuit is composed of a smoke detector, a monostable trigger, a voice generator and a power amplifier circuit. The smoke detector consists of potentiometer RP1, resistor R1 and gas sensor. The monostable trigger has time-base integrated circuit IC1, resistor R2, capacitor C1, and potentiometer RP2. The voice generator circuit is composed of voice integrated circuit IC2, resistors R3-R5, capacitor C2 and Zener diode VS. The audio power amplifier circuit includes transistor V, boost power amplifier module IC3, resistors R6 and R7, capacitors C3 and C4, and speaker BL.


When the gas sensor doesn’t detect smoke, the resistance value between A and B is relatively large. IC1 pin2 is high level (higher than 2VCC/3), pin3 outputs low level, while voice generator circuit and the audio power amplifier circuit does not work. When someone smokes and the gas sensor detects the smoke, the resistance value between the A and B becomes smaller, causing the voltage of IC1 pin2 to drop. When the voltage of this pin drops to VCC/3, IC1 pin3 changes from low level to high level. Pass through current limiter R3, filter C2 and Zener diode VS, the high level will generate 4.2V DC voltage, which is supplied to voice IC2 and crystal arm. After IC2 energizes and works, it outputs a voice electrical signal. After the signal is amplified by V and IC3, it makes BL to emit a voice warning sound of "No Smoking!"

 

🎃 Components Selection
Rl~R7 selects 1/4W carbon film resistor or metal film resistor for use. RP1 and RP2 can choose small linear potentiometer or variable resistor. C1, C2 and C4 all use aluminum electrolytic capacitors with a withstand voltage of 16V; C3 uses monolithic capacitors. VS selects the silicon Zener diode of 1/2W, 4.2V for use. V uses S9013 or C8050 silicon NPN transistors. IC1 uses the NE555 timer IC; IC2 uses the voice integrated circuit; lC3 uses the WVH68 boost power amplifier thick-mode IC. BL selects 8Ω, 1~3W electrodynamic speakers. The gas sensor is MQK-2 type sensor.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
This no-smoking warning device can be used as a smoke alarm to detect fires or harmful gases, and combustible gases. Adjusting the RP1 resistance can change the heating current of the gas sensor (usually about 130mA). And adjusting the RP2 resistance can change the sensitivity of the monostable trigger circuit.

 

Ⅲ Simple Temperature Controller

This circuit is a temperature automatic controller composed of a 555 timer IC and a few peripheral components. Because the voltage at each point in the circuit comes from the same DC power supply, it does not need a high-performance regulated one. Using the capacitor step-down method can work reliably. The circuit components are low in price, small in size, and easy to self-made under amateur conditions. The automatic temperature controller made by this circuit can be used for electric heating control in industrial production and household use, with good effect.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

555 timer based circuit for temperature control

Figure 3. 555 Timer Based Circuit for Temperature Control

When the temperature is low, the resistance of the thermistor Rt with a negative temperature coefficient is large, the potential of pin2 of the 555 timer IC is lower than 1/3 of the voltage of Ec (about 4V), and its pin3 output high level. At this time, V conducts, the heater RL is heating, and the timing cycle starts. When the temperature of the thermistor Rt is higher than the set value and the timing cycle has not been completed, the heater RL will cut off after the timing cycle stops. When the Rt temperature drops below the set value, V will conduct again and turn on the heater RL for heating. In this way, automatic temperature control can be achieved.

 

🎃 Components Selection
In this circuit, the thermistor Rt can be a negative temperature coefficient type MF12 or MF53, or other types of negative temperature coefficient thermistors with different resistance values, as long as Rt+VR1= 2R4 is satisfied under the temperature condition to be controlled. A larger potentiometer VR1 can have a larger adjustment range, but its sensitivity will decrease. The bidirectional thyristor V can also be selected according to the size of the load current. There are no special requirements for other components. Choose according to the parameters given in the circuit diagram.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
The whole circuit can be installed on PCB. Generally, debugging is not required. The time interval is 1... .1R2×C3, which should be smaller than the thermal time constant of the heating system, but not too small, otherwise it will cause excessive radio frequency interference due to the thyristor V turns on or off rapidly. After installation and debugging, it can be put into a small plastic box, and the thermistor Rt can be led to the required place.

 

Ⅳ Digital Thermometer

This circuit is a thermometer made by AD590 special integrated temperature sensor, which has the characteristics of simple structure, reliable use and high precision.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

digital thermometer circuit

Figure 4. Digital Thermometer Circuit

After the 100V AC voltage passes through the transformer T1, the rectifier bridge stack UR and the capacitor C1, the DC voltage is obtained, and then the adjustable voltage regulator circuit μA723C provides a stable working voltage for the temperature sensor AD590. AD590 is a new type of current output temperature sensor, composed of multiple transistors and resistors with the same parameters. When a specific DC working voltage is applied to both ends of the sensor, if the sensor temperature is 1 degree Celsius, the output current of the sensor changes by 1 μA. The changing current of the sensor is converted into a voltage signal through the resistor R5 and the variable resistor RP2, and then output to the digital meter, which displays the temperature change.

 

🎃 Components Selection
The IC selects AD590-series temperature sensor. There are no special requirements for other components of this circuit, and can be selected according to the parameters given in the circuit diagram.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
By adjusting the value of resistor R5 and variable resistor RP2, the sensitivity of the circuit output can be improved.

 

Ⅴ Automatic Fish Tank Water Temperature Controller

The automatic fish tank water temperature controller uses a negative temperature coefficient thermistor as a temperature sensor to automatically heat the fish tank through heating gas. The transient time of this circuit is small, which is beneficial to the accuracy of temperature control. And it is suitable for various sizes of fish tanks.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

automatic control of fishbowl water temperature

Figure 5. Automatic Control of Fishbowl Water Temperature

After being rectified by diodes VD2~VD5 and filtered by capacitor C2, a voltage of about 12V is provided to the control part of the circuit. 555 timer is connected as a monostable flip-flop, the transient state is 11s. Set the control temperature to 25ºC, adjust the potentiometer RP, to get RP + Rt = 2R1 ( Rt is the thermistor with negative temperature coefficient). When the temperature is lower than 25ºC, the Rt resistance value increases, and the pin2 of the 555 timer is low level, then the pin3 output changes from low level to high level. The relay K is turned on, and its contact is closed. The heating tube starts to heat until the temperature returns to 25ºC, the Rt resistance value becomes smaller, the pin2 of the 555 timer is at high level, and the pin3 outputs low level. The relay K loses power, its contact is open, and the heating stops.

 

🎃 Components Selection
IC uses NE555, NA555, SL555 and other 555 timer ICs; VD1 uses IN4148 silicon switching diodes; LED uses common light-emitting diodes; VD2~VD5 uses IN4001 silicon rectifier diodes; Rt uses 470Ω MF51-type negative temperature coefficient thermistors at room temperature; RP uses WSW organic solid trimming potentiometer; R1and R2 uses RXT-1/8W carbon film resistors; C1 and C3 uses CD11-16V electrolytic capacitors; C2 uses CT1 ceramic dielectric capacitors; K uses 12V JZC-22F electromagnetic relay.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
The temperature sensor probe connects the thermistor Rt with wires, and then seals the solder joint with epoxy glue, to avoid water erosion. As long as the circuit is correct in the DIY process, this circuit is easy to operate. If the component performance is good, it can be used without debugging after installation.

 

Ⅵ Cyclic Working Timing Controller

The circuit can set the cycle time of the equipment and each time it works, allowing the equipment to work continuously according to the set time. This circuit can be applied to control occasions such as timing pumping, timing ventilation, and timing cut off.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

cycle timing circuit

Fgiure 6. Cycle Timing Circuit

After the circuit is stepped down through the capacitor C2 and the bleeder resistor R3, and then rectified by the bridge stack IC2, and stabilized by VD2, a DC voltage of about 12V is obtained to supply power to IC1 and other circuits. IC1 is a 14-bit binary counter/frequency divider integrated circuit. A clock oscillator with a certain frequency is formed by the internal circuits of R1, R2, C1 and IC1 to provide clock pulses for timing IC1. When the circuit is powered on, it first enters the working gap waiting time of the device. IC1 internally realizes the delay by counting and dividing the clock pulse.

 

When the timing is up (according to the parameters in the figure, about 3 hours), the Q14 terminal of IC1 outputs high level, making the transistor V conducts. The relay KA gets to work, and drives the controlled equipment to start working. At this time, IC1 starts to count the working time of the device again. When the timing expires (according to the parameters in the figure, about 20 minutes), the Q14 terminal outputs low level. So that V is cut off and the device stops working. And meanwhile, IC1 automatically resets and starts the next timing. So that the device can perform timing cycle according to requirements. In the figure, VL is a working indicator.

 

🎃 Components Selection
Integrated circuit IC1 chooses 14-bit binary counter/frequency divider CD4066, or CC4066 or other digital circuit integrated blocks with the same function. IC2 selects a 1A, 50V bridge stack, or can be connected with four 1N4007 diodes. Transistor V uses NPN-type transistor 8050, and other transistors such as 9013 or 3DG12 can also be used. VD1 selects rectifier diode 1N4007; VD1 selects 1W, 12V silicon regulator tube, such as 1N4742; VD3 ~VD5 use switching diodes 1N4148; VL selects ordinary light-emitting diodes. Resistors R1, R2, R4, R6 and R7 use 1/4W metal film resistors; R3 and R5 use 1/2W carbon film resistors. C1 selects polyester or monolithic capacitors; C2 selects polypropylene capacitors with a withstand voltage of 450V and above; C3 selects aluminum electrolytic capacitors with a withstand voltage of 16V. Relay KA chooses a miniature relay with a coil voltage of 12V, and the contacts capacity is determined according to the power of the controlled device.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
After the circuit is installed, it can work normally without debugging. When you need to adjust the control time, you can adjust the parameters of R1, and C1. Also you can change the position of the IC1 output control terminal (Q4 ~Q14).

 

Ⅶ Overvoltage Automatic Power-off Device for Household Appliances

Because the instability of the mains, the household appliances often affected, their service life may reduce. In serious cases, it is easy to burn out due to voltage surge. The circuit described in this example can solve this problem well.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

overvoltage protection circuit for appliances

Figure 7. Overvoltage Protection Circuit for Appliances

The mains supply provides a stable 12V working voltage for the switch integrated circuit via C1, VD1, and DW1. VD3, R2 and RP1 form a voltage divider sampling circuit. When the mains voltage is normal, DW2 cannot be turned on, the working voltage of TWH8778 pin⑤ is lower than 1.6V. The relay J does not pull in, and the mains supplies the CZ socket through the J-1 normally closed contact. When the mains voltage is high than the normal setting, DW2 breaks down, the potential of TWH8778 pin⑤ rises to 1.6V, causing the IC to flip, pin ③ outputs high level. At this time, the relay is pulled in, and the electrical power supply is immediately cut off, avoiding the overvoltage affects electrical appliances.

 

🎃 Components Selection
C1 uses 0.47µ/400V electrolytic capacitor, relay J uses 6V DC contactor; RP uses ordinary trimming potentiometer, chip IC can be TWH8778-type electronic switch or TWH8752-type electronic switch.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
After the device is welded correctly, connect the mains power to the input end of the voltage regulator, cooperate with the voltage regulator and carefully adjust RP1, so that the relay J is closed when the voltage is 250V, and then the circuit is connected to the mains power grid.

 

Ⅷ Fan Automatic Temperature Control Governor

This is an electric fan automatic temperature control governor, which can automatically adjust the speed according to the temperature change. The circuit can be adjusted, so it can be used for the control of other electrical equipment.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

Figure 8. Automatic Temperature Control and Speed Regulation in Fan Circuit

The IC in the picture is a 555 timer IC, which forms a multivibrator with components of R2, R3 and C2. It can send out a rectangular wave signal with an adjustable duty cycle. When the temperature changes, the resistance value of the thermistor changes, so the duty cycle of the square wave output by the multivibrator changes. Adjusting the conduction angle of the bidirectional thyristor VT changes the voltage across the fan electrodes, which automatically adjusts the speed of the electric fan.

 

🎃 Components Selection
The integrated circuit IC selects NE555 timer, and models such as LM555 and TLC555 can also be used. VT is a bidirectional thyristor, its withstand voltage should be above 400V, and the rated current should be reasonably selected according to the capacity of the electric fan to be controlled. Resistor R1~R5 can choose ordinary 1/8 or 1/4W carbon film resistors; Rt is a negative temperature coefficient thermistor, and can choose a thermistor with a resistance of about 10KΩ at room temperature. Capacitor C1 uses ordinary aluminum electrolytic capacitors; Capacitors C2 and C3 are polyester capacitors. VD is a Zener diode with a steady voltage of 9.1V.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
You can make your own PCB, or use a universal one. After the circuit is installed, the temperature of the thermistor Rt can be artificially changed to observe the speed of the fan motor. If the temperature control effect is not ideal, the resistance value or temperature change range of the thermistor can be adjusted appropriately.

 

Ⅸ Boiling Water Alarm

When boiling water in the kitchen, once the water boils, if it is not turned gas off in time, the boiling water will overflow and extinguish the flame. The gas may spill, which is very unsafe. This problem can be solved by using the water alarm.
🎃 Circuit Working Model

boiling water alarm

Figure 9. Boiling Water Alarm Circuit

This circuit uses thermistor as the temperature sensing element. When the water temperature rises, the resistance of the thermistor decreases and the potential at point A increases. When the potential at point A is higher than the conversion voltage of the IC-1 inverter, the IC -1 will output low level, IC-2 will output high level. Making the audio oscillator composed of IC-3 and IC-4 work, and the piezoelectric ceramic sheet makes sound. When IC-2 outputs low level, the audio oscillator doesn’t work, and the piezoelectric ceramic chip is silent.

 

🎃 Components Selection
IC uses C066 two input terminal four NAND gate, working voltage 3V~18V, power supply is 3V~6V; RT thermistor selection resistance value is about 1kΩ; piezoelectric ceramic chip diameter is 27mm; resistor selection is ordinary 1/8 or 1/4W metal film resistors.

 

🎃 DIY and Adjustment
Find two starter shells of waste fluorescent lamps, use iron sheet as a clip, close the tops of the two starters, and fasten them with screws. One of the starters can be set on the mouth of the kettle to obtain the temperature of the water. The two pins of the thermistor are welded on the cover of the other starter and put into the shell. Note that the thermistor must be close to the inner shell wall to facilitate heat transfer. Solder the outer lead of the thermistor and the temperature sensor. After all the components are welded and checked, you can turn on the power for debugging. Put the temperature sensor on the mouth of the kettle, and adjust the RP when the water boils to make the piezoelectric ceramic sheet sound. Repeat it several times before this circuit can be used normally. If you want to change the sound frequency, you can change the C2 capacity. If you feel that the sound is light, you can connect an external transistor to the IC-4 output terminal to amplify the sound.

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