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TMC2130 Stepper Motor Drivers: CAD Models, Datasheet, Features [Video&FAQ]

Author: Irene
Date: 28 Apr 2022
 145
tmc2130 wiring diagram

Catalog

Product Overview

TMC2130 Description

TMC2130 Related Video Introduction

TMC2130 CAD Models

TMC2130 Pin Configuration

TMC2130 Block Diagram

TMC2130 Features and Benefits

TMC2130 Applications

TMC2130 Sample Circuits

TMC2130 Datasheet

TMC2130 Specifications

TMC2130 Manufacturer

Using Warning

TMC2130 FAQ

 

Product Overview

Universal high voltage driver for two-phase bipolar stepper motor. StealthChop™ for quiet movement. Integrated MOSFETs for up to 2.0A motor current per coil. With Step/Dir Interface and SPI.

 

TMC2130 Description

The TMC2130 is a high-performance driver integrated circuit for two-phase stepper motors. SPI and STEP /DIR standards make communication easier. TRINAMIC's innovative StealthChop chopper assures quiet operation while maximizing efficiency and motor power. CoolStep helps you to cut your energy use by up to 75%. DcStep drives big loads as quickly as feasible with minimizing step loss. Motor currents of up to 1.2A RMS (QFN package) / 1.4A RMS (TQFP package) or 2.5A short time peak current per coil are handled by integrated power MOSFETs. Protection and diagnostic functions help to ensure a stable and dependable functioning. The most advanced stepper motor driver in the industry allows for downsized designs with a low external component count for cost-effective and highly competitive solutions.

 

Video Description: In this video I tried to show you how to install Trinamic TMC2130 stepper motor drivers to ramps 1.4 board in standalone mode and how silent your 3d printer can be after this upgrade.

 

TMC2130 CAD Models

PCB Symbol

PCB Symbol

 

 

Footprint

Footprint

 

 

3D Models

3D Models

 

TMC2130 Pin Assignments

TMC2130-LA Package and Pinning QFN36 (5x6mm² Body)

TMC2130-LA Package and Pinning QFN36 (5x6mm² Body)

 

 

TMC2130-TA Package and Pinning TQFP-EP 48-EP (7x7mm² Body, 9x9mm² with Leads)

TMC2130-TA Package and Pinning TQFP-EP 48-EP (7x7mm² Body, 9x9mm² with Leads)

 

Signal Descriptions

Pin

QFN36

TQFP48

Type

Function

CLK

1

2

DI

CLK input. Tie to GND using short wire for internal clock

or supply external clock.

CSN_CFG3

2

3

DI

(tpu)

SPI chip select input (negative active) (SPI_MODE=1) or

Configuration input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

SCK_CFG2

3

4

DI

(tpu)

SPI serial clock input (SPI_MODE=1) or

Configuration input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

SDI_CFG1

4

5

DI

(tpu)

SPI data input (SPI_MODE=1) or

Configuration input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

SDO_CFG0

5

7

DIO

(tpu)

SPI data output (tristate) (SPI_MODE=1) or

Configuration input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

STEP

6

8

DI

STEP input

DIR

7

9

DI

DIR input

VCC_IO

8

10

 

3.3V to 5V IO supply voltage for all digital pins.

 

DNC

 

9

11, 14, 16,

18, 20, 22,

28, 41, 43,

45, 47

 

-

Do not connect. Leave open to ensure highest distance for high voltage pins in TQFP package!

 

SPI_MODE

 

10

 

12

 

DI

(pu)

Mode selection input with pullup resistor. When tied low, the chip is in standalone mode and pins have their CFG functions. When tied high, the SPI interface is available

for control. Integrated pull-up resistor.

N.C.

11

6, 31, 36

 

Unused pin, connect to GND for compatibility to future

versions.

GNDP

12, 35

13, 48

 

Power GND. Connect to GND plane near pin.

OB1

13

15

 

Motor coil B output 1

 

BRB

 

14

 

17

 

Sense resistor connection for coil B. Place sense resistor to GND near pin. An additional 100nF capacitor to GND

(GND plane) is recommended for best performance.

OB2

15

19

 

Motor coil B output 2

 

VS

 

16, 31

 

21, 40

 

Motor supply voltage. Provide filtering capacity near pin

with short loop to nearest GNDP pin (respectively via GND plane).

DCO

17

23

DIO

DcStep ready output

 

DCEN_CFG4

 

18

 

24

DI

(tpu)

DcStep enable input (SPI_MODE=1) - tie to GND for normal operation (no DcStep) or

Configuration input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

 

DCIN_CFG5

 

19

 

25

DI

(tpu)

DcStep gating input for axis synchronization (SPI_MODE=1) or

Configuration input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

DIAG0

20

26

DIO

Diagnostics output DIAG0. Use external pull-up resistor

with 47k or less in open drain mode.

DIAG1

21

27

DIO

Diagnostics output DIAG1. Use external pull-up resistor

with 47k or less in open drain mode.

 

DRV_ENN_ CFG6

 

 

22

 

 

29

 

DI

(tpu)

Enable input (SPI_MODE=1) or

configuration / Enable input (SPI_MODE=0) (tristate detection).

The power stage becomes switched off (all motor outputs

floating) when this pin becomes driven to a high level.

 

AIN_IREF

 

23

 

30

 

AI

Analog reference voltage for current scaling (optional mode) or reference current for use of internal sense

resistors

GNDA

24

32

 

Analog GND. Tie to GND plane.

 

5VOUT

 

25

 

33

 

Output of internal 5V regulator. Attach 2.2µF or larger

ceramic   capacitor   to   GNDA   near   to   pin   for best performance. May be used to supply VCC of chip.

 

 

 

VCC

 

 

 

26

 

 

 

34

 

5V supply input for digital circuitry within  chip  and  charge pump. Attach 470nF capacitor to GND (GND plane). May be supplied by 5VOUT. A 2.2 or 3.3 Ohm resistor is recommended for decoupling noise from 5VOUT. When using an external supply, make sure, that VCC comes up before or in parallel to 5VOUT or VCC_IO, whichever

comes up later!

CPO

27

35

 

Charge pump capacitor output.

CPI

28

37

 

Charge pump capacitor input. Tie to CPO using 22nF 50V

capacitor.

VCP

29

38

 

Charge pump voltage. Tie to VS using 100nF capacitor.

VSA

30

39

 

Analog supply voltage for 5V regulator. Normally tied to

VS. Provide a 100nF filtering capacitor.

OA2

32

42

 

Motor coil A output 2

 

BRA

 

33

 

44

 

Sense resistor connection for coil A. Place sense resistor to GND near pin. An additional 100nF capacitor to GND

(GND plane) is recommended for best performance.

OA1

34

46

 

Motor coil A output 1

TST_MODE

36

1

DI

Test mode input. Tie to GND using short wire.

Exposed die pad

 

-

 

-

 

Connect the exposed die pad to a GND plane. Provide as many as possible vias for heat transfer to GND plane.

Serves as GND pin for digital circuitry.

 

*(pu) denominates a pin with pullup resistor; (tpu) denominates a pin with pullup resistor or toggle detection. Toggle detection is active in standalone mode, only (SPI_MODE=0)

 

* Digital Pins: All pins of type DI, DI(pu), DI(tpu), DIO and DIO(tpu) refer to VCC_IO and have intrinsic protective clamping diodes to GND and VCC_IO and use Schmitt trigger inputs.

 

TMC2130 Block Diagram

Block Diagram

Block Diagram

 

TMC2130 Features and Benefits

2-phase stepper motors up to 2.0A coil current (2.5A peak)

Step/Dir Interface with microstep interpolation MicroPlyer™

SPI Interface

Voltage Range 4.75… 46V DC

Highest Resolution 256 microsteps per full step

StealthChop™ for extremely quiet operation and smooth motion

spreadCycle™ highly dynamic motor control chopper

DcStep™ load dependent speed control

StallGuard2™ high precision sensorless motor load detection

CoolStep™ current control for energy savings up to 75%

Integrated Current Sense Option

Passive Braking and freewheeling mode

Full Protection & Diagnostics

Small Size 5x6mm2 QFN36 package or TQFP48 package

 

TMC2130 Applications

  • Textile, Sewing Machines
  • Factory & Lab Automation
  • 3D printers
  • Liquid Handling
  • Medical
  • Office Automation
  • CCTV, Security
  • ATM, Cash recycler
  • POS
  • Pumps and Valves

 

TMC2130 STEP DIR Application Diagram

TMC2130 STEP DIR Application Diagram

 

 

TMC2130 Standalone Driver Application Diagram

TMC2130 Standalone Driver Application Diagram

 

TMC2130 Sample Circuits

The sample circuits explain how to connect external components in various operation and supply modes. For clarity, the bus interface and other digital signals are not connected.

 

Standard Application Circuit

Standard Application Circuit

Standard Application Circuit

 

A small number of extra components are used in the standard application circuit. The motor coil current is controlled by two sensing resistors. To select the appropriate sensing resistors, refer to Chapter 9. Filter the power supply with low ESR capacitors. Capacitors must deal with the current ripple caused by chopper operation. For optimal functioning, a minimum capacity of 100F near the driver is advised.

 

The current ripple in the supply capacitors is also affected by the internal resistance of the power supply and the length of the connection. VCC IO can be powered by 5VOUT or an external source, such as a low drop 3.3V regulator. If a separate (lower) supply voltage is available, a different (lower) supply voltage can be utilized for VSA to minimize linear voltage regulator power dissipation of the internal 5V voltage regulator in applications where VM is high. Many applications, for example, include a 12V supply in addition to a higher driver supply voltage. Using a 12V supply for VSA instead of a 24V supply reduces the power dissipation of the internal 5V regulator to around 37% of the dissipation generated by a full motor voltage supply.

 

Reduced Number of Components

Reduced Number of Filtering Components

Reduced Number of Filtering Components

 

The conventional application circuit employs RC filtering to isolate the output of the internal linear regulator from the high frequency ripple created by digital circuitry powered by the VCC input. For low-cost applications, the RC-Filtering on VCC can be disabled. As a result of the operation of the charge pump and the internal digital circuitry, there is additional noise on 5VOUT. There is a minor effect on the performance of microstep vibration and chopper noise.

 

Internal RDSon Sensing

Sense resistors can be eliminated in cost-sensitive or limited-space applications. A reference current set by a modest external resistor programs the output current in internal current sensing.

 

RDSon Based Sensing Eliminates High Current Sense Resistors

RDSon Based Sensing Eliminates High Current Sense Resistors

 

External 5V Power Supply

When an external 5V power source is provided, the internal linear regulator's power consumption can be avoided. This is particularly useful in high voltage applications and when temperature conditions are critical. There are two ways to use an external 5V source: either the external 5V source is used to support the driver's digital supply by feeding the VCC pin, or the entire internal voltage regulator is bridged and replaced by the external supply voltage.

 

Support for the VCC Supply

All digital circuitry within the driver is powered by an external source in this scheme (Figure 3.4). Because the digital circuitry accounts for the majority of the power consumption, the internal 5V regulator sees just a small remaining load. The carefully regulated voltage of the internal regulator is still used as a reference for motor current regulation and to power internal analog circuits.


When disconnecting VCC from 5VOUT, make sure the VCC supply comes on before or synchronously with the 5VOUT supply to ensure a proper power up reset of the internal logic. A basic schematic for VCC uses two diodes to produce an OR of the internal and external power supply.

 

To prevent the chip from taking power from its internal regulator, the external 5V supply line is protected by a low drop 1A Schottky diode, while the 5VOUT path is protected by a silicon diode. As an active switch, an improved solution employs a dual PNP transistor. It reduces voltage drop and hence provides the greatest performance.

 

In certain setups, switching of VCC voltage can be eliminated. A third variant uses the VCC_IO supply to ensure power-on reset. This is possible, if VCC_IO comes up synchronously with or delayed to VCC. Use a linear regulator to generate a 3.3V VCC_IO from the external 5V VCC source. This 3.3V regulator will cause a certain voltage drop. A voltage drop in the regulator of 0.9V or more (e.g. LD1117-3.3) ensures that the 5V supply already has exceeded the lower limit of about 3.0V once the reset conditions ends. The reset condition ends earliest, when VCC_IO exceeds the undervoltage limit of minimum 2.1V. Make sure that the power-down sequence also is safe. Undefined states can result when VCC drops well below 4V without safely triggering a reset condition. Triggering a reset upon power-down can be ensured when VSA goes down synchronously with or before VCC.

 

VCC Supplied from External 5V. 5V or 3.3V IO Voltage

VCC Supplied from External 5V. 5V or 3.3V IO Voltage

 

 

VCC Supplied from External 5V. 3.3V IO Voltage Generated from Same Source

VCC Supplied from External 5V. 3.3V IO Voltage Generated from Same Source

 

 

VCC Supplied from External 5V Using Active Switch. 5V or 3.3V IO Voltage

VCC Supplied from External 5V Using Active Switch. 5V or 3.3V IO Voltage

 

Internal Regulator Bridged

If a clean external 5V supply is available, it can be used to power both the analog and digital parts. A well-regulated supply, such as when employing a +/-1 percent regulator, will improve the circuit. Because the voltage at 5VOUT directly serves as the reference voltage for all internal units of the driver, including motor current control, a precise supply ensures greater motor current precision. The power supply should have low ripple for the best performance, providing a precise and stable supply at the 5VOUT pin with remaining ripple well below 5mV. Some switching regulators have more residual ripple than others, and various loads on the supply may create lower frequency ripple. Increase the capacity associated to 5VOUT in this situation. If the external supply voltage is unstable or has a low frequency ripple, it will compromise the precision of the motor current regulation and increase chopper noise.

 

Using an External 5V Supply to Bypass Internal Regulator

Using an External 5V Supply to Bypass Internal Regulator

 

Pre-Regulator for Reduced Power Dissipation

When running at supply voltages of up to 46V for VS and VSA, the inbuilt linear regulator contributes up to 1W to the driver's power consumption. This reduces the chip's capacity to consistently drive high motor current, especially at high temperatures. When there is no external power source in the 5V to 24V range, an external pre-regulator can be made using a few inexpensive components to dissipate the majority of the voltage drop in external components. The diagram below depicts various examples. In the absence of a well-defined supply voltage, a single 1W or higher power Zener diode will suffice.

 

Simple Pre-Regulator for 24V up to 46V

Simple Pre-Regulator for 24V up to 46V

 

 

Simple Short Circuit Protected Pre-Regulator for 24V up to 46V

Simple Short Circuit Protected Pre-Regulator for 24V up to 46V

 

 

5V Only Supply

5V only operation

5V only operation

 

While the usual application circuit is limited to a lower supply voltage of about 5.5 V, a 5 V only application allows the IC to run off a normal 5 V +/-5 percent supply. Linear regulator drop must be kept to a minimum in this application. As a result, the major 5 V load is reduced by directly feeding VCC from the external supply. 5VOUT should have its own filtering capacity to keep supply ripple away from the analog voltage reference, and the 5VOUT pin should not get bridged to the 5V supply.

 

High Motor Current

When operating at a high motor current, the driver heats up rapidly due to power dissipation caused by MOSFET switch onresistance. If the duty cycle is increased, this power dissipation will also heat up the PCB cooling infrastructure. This causes the driver's temperature to rise even further. A temperature increase of about 100°C increases MOSFET resistance by about 50%. This is typical MOSFET switch behavior. As a result, thermal properties must be carefully considered in high duty cycle, high load conditions, especially when elevated ambient temperatures are to be accommodated. For more details, see the thermal characteristics and layout hints. Thermal qualities of the PCB design become crucial for the QFN-36 at or above around 1000mA RMS motor current for extended periods of time, as a rule of thumb. Keep in mind that resistive power dissipation grows in direct proportion to the square of the motor current. On the other side, a little reduction in motor current saves a large amount of heat dissipation and energy.

 

When employing SpreadCycle, a small sine distortion of the current wave may be detected at medium motor velocities and motor sine wave peak currents above about 1.2A peak. It is caused by a rising negative impact of parasitic internal diode conduction, which in turn reduces the duration of the SpreadCycle chopper's fast decay cycle. This is due to the fact that the current measurement does not see the whole coil current during this phase of the sine wave, because a growing portion of the current travels directly from the power MOSFETs' drain to GND without passing through the sense resistor. Because it has no effect on the crucial current zero transition, this effect has no negative impact on the smoothness of operation in most motors. StealthChop does not have this effect.

 

Reduce Linear Regulator Power Dissipation

When running at high supply voltages, the power dissipation of the integrated 5V linear regulator can be minimized as a first step, for example, by using an external 5V source for supply. This reduces total heating. It is recommended to lower motor standstill current to reduce total power dissipation. Use CoolStep as well, if applicable. A lower clock frequency reduces the power dissipation of the internal logic. Furthermore, lowering the chopper frequency can help to reduce power dissipation.

 

Operation near to / above 2A Peak Current

The driver can provide a maximum motor peak current of 2.5A. Due to heat constraints, this is only viable in duty cycle limited operation. When driving a peak current of up to 2.5A, the driver chip temperature should be controlled at a maximum of 105°C. Derate the design peak temperature linearly from 125°C to 105°C in the 2A to 2.5A output current range. Exceeding this limit may result in the short circuit detector being triggered.

 

Derating of Maximum Sine Wave Peak Current at Increased Die Temperature

Derating of Maximum Sine Wave Peak Current at Increased Die Temperature

 

Reduction of Resistive Losses by Adding Schottky Diodes

When driving large motor currents, Schottky Diodes can be added to the circuit to reduce driver power dissipation (see Figure 3.9). Schottky diodes have a conduction voltage of around 0.5V and will take over more than half of the motor current during the negative half wave of each output in the slow and fast decay phases, resulting in a cooler motor driver. This effect begins at a few percent at 1.2A and rises with greater motor current rating up to about 20%. Because a 30V Schottky diode has a lower forward voltage than a 50V or 60V diode, using a 30V diode when the supply voltage is less than 30V makes sense. Because of the shorter durations of diode conduction in the chopper cycle, the diodes will have less effect while working with StealthChop. The effect of the diodes is insignificant at current levels less than 1.2A coil current.

 

Schottky Diodes Reduce Power Dissipation at High Peak Currents up to 2A (2.5A)

Schottky Diodes Reduce Power Dissipation at High Peak Currents up to 2A (2.5A)

 

Driver Protection and EME Circuitry

Some applications must deal with ESD occurrences induced by motor action or outside influences. Regardless of ESD circuitry within the driver chips, ESD occurrences during operation can cause a reset or even the destruction of the motor driver, depending on their energy. Plastic housings and belt drive systems, in particular, are known to induce ESD incidents of several kV. To eliminate ESD incidents, connect all conductive elements, including the motors themselves, to PCB ground or use electrically conductive plastic parts. Furthermore, the driver can be protected to some extent against ESD occurrences or live plugging / withdrawing the motor, both of which induce high voltages and currents into the motor connector terminals. To decrease the dV/dt generated by ESD events, a simple technique employs capacitors at the driver outputs. Larger capacitors provide more value in terms of ESD suppression, but they produce more current flow in each chopper cycle, increasing driver power dissipation, especially at high supply voltages. The values displayed are only examples; they might be anywhere between 100pF and 1nF. The capacitors further limit electromagnetic emission by dampening high frequency noise introduced from digital components of the application PCB circuitry. A more complex technique decouples the driver outputs from the motor connector using LC filters. Varistors placed between the coil terminals prevent coil overvoltage produced by live plugging. A varistor can be used to protect all outputs from ESD voltage.

 

TMC2130 Datasheet

You can download the datasheet of TMC2130 from the link given below:

TMC2130 Datasheet

 

TMC2130 Specifications

Product Attribute Attribute Value
Manufacturer: Trinamic
Product Category: Motor / Motion / Ignition Controllers & Drivers
Product: Stepper Motor Controllers / Drivers
Type: 2 Phase
Operating Supply Voltage: 4.75 V to 46 V
Output Current: 2 A
Operating Supply Current: 19 mA
Minimum Operating Temperature: - 40 ℃
Maximum Operating Temperature: + 125 ℃
Mounting Style: SMD/SMT
Package / Case: QFN-36
Packaging: Reel
Packaging: Cut Tape
Brand: Trinamic
Development Kit: TMC2130-EVAL
Moisture Sensitive: Yes
Operating Frequency: 13.2 MHz
Pd - Power Dissipation: 2.6 W
Product Type: Motor / Motion / Ignition Controllers & Drivers
Series: TMC2130
Subcategory: PMIC - Power Management ICs
Part # Aliases: 00-0128T
Unit Weight: 140 mg

 

TMC2130 Manufacturer

Headquartered in Hamburg, Germany with subsidiaries in Tallinn, Estonia, and Chicago, IL, USA, Trinamic provides integrated circuits, modules, and integrated mechatronics for embedded motor and motion control to customers all over the world.

 

Using Warning

Note: Please check their parameters and pin configuration before replacing them in your circuit.

 

TMC2130 FAQ

What are Trinamic drivers?

Stepper motors in a 3D printer are controlled by a variety of driver chips such as the common A4988 and DRV8825. These provide signals to the stepper motors to control the magnets and move them by micro-steps.

 

What are stepper motor drivers?

A Stepper Motor Driver is the driver circuit that enables the stepper motor to function the way it does. For example, stepper motors require sufficient and controlled energy for phases in a precise sequence. Due to this, stepper motors are considered more advanced than the typical DC motor.

 

How do I identify my stepper driver?

Consider voltage and current needs.

 

A simple way to choose a stepper drive is to look for four things — voltage, current, microstepping, and maximum step pulse rate. Ensure that the drive can handle a wide range of current so that you can test the system at different voltage levels to fit your application.

 

What is a motor driver?

A motor driver takes the low-current signal from the controller circuit and amps it up into a high-current signal, to correctly drive the motor. It basically controls a high-current signal using a low-current signal. There are different types of motor drivers available in the market, in the form of ICs.

 

What is a silent stepper driver?

The SilentStepStick is a stepper driver board for 2-phase motors, based on the TMC2100, TMC2130, TMC2208, TMC2209 or TMC5160. The driver boards are compatible with StepSticks of the same familiar size and drop-in replacements for some of them.

 

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