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Sep 16 2020

L293D Motor Driver: Pinout, Feature, Application Overview

Introduction

L293D is a quadruple high-current half-H driver. It’s designed to drive a wide array of inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and bipolar stepping motors, as well as other high-current and high-voltage loads. All inputs are TTL compatible and tolerant up to 7 V. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive circuit, with a Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo-Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in pairs, with drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN. When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled, and their outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. When the enable input is low, those drivers are disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or bridge) reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications.

 

The external high-speed output clamp diodes of the L293D are integrated to reduce system complexity and overall system size. A VCC1 terminal, separate from VCC2, is provided for the logic inputs to minimize device power dissipation. The L293D is characterized for operation from 0°C to 70°C.

L293D


Catalog

 

Introduction

Device Information

Documents and Media

Features

Where to use L293D IC

How to use a L293D Motor Driver IC

Applications

Typical Application

Pinout Details and Functions

Layout Example

Product Manufacturer

FAQ


Device Information

PART NUMBER

PACKAGE

 BODY SIZE (NOM)

L293DNE

PDIP (16)

 19.80 mm × 6.35 mm


Documents and Media

Datasheet

 L293x Quadruple Half-H Drivers datasheet (Rev. D)

Features

  • Wide Supply-Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V
  • Separate Input-Logic Supply
  • Internal ESD Protection
  • High-Noise-Immunity Inputs
  • Output Current 1 A Per Channel (600 mA for L293D)
  • Peak Output Current 2 A Per Channel (1.2 A for L293D)
  • Output Clamp Diodes for Inductive Transient Suppression (L293D)

Where to use L293D IC

The L293D is a popular 16-Pin Motor Driver IC. As the name suggests it is mainly used to drive motors. A single L293D IC is capable of running two DC motors at the same time; also the direction of these two motors can be controlled independently. So if you have motors which has operating voltage less than 36V and operating current less than 600mA, which are to be controlled by digital circuits like Op-Amp, 555 timers, digital gates or even Micron rollers like Arduino, PIC, ARM etc.. this IC will be the right choice for you.


How to use a L293D Motor Driver IC

Using this L293D motor driver IC is very simple. The IC works on the principle of Half H-Bridge, let us not go too deep into what H-Bridge means, but for now just know that H bridge is a set up which is used to run motors both in clock wise and anti clockwise direction. As said earlier this IC is capable of running two motors at the any direction at the same time, the circuit to achieve the same is shown below.

L293D Motor Driver Circuit

 

All the Ground pins should be grounded. There are two power pins for this IC, one is the Vss(Vcc1) which provides the voltage for the IC to work, this must be connected to +5V. The other is Vs(Vcc2) which provides voltage for the motors to run, based on the specification of your motor you can connect this pin to anywhere between 4.5V to 36V, here I have connected to +12V.The Enable pins (Enable 1,2 and Enable  3,4)  are used to Enable Input pins for Motor 1 and Motor 2 respectively. Since in most cases we will be using both the motors both the pins are held high by default by connecting to +5V supply. The input pins Input 1,2 are used to control the motor 1 and Input pins 3,4 are used to control the Motor 2. The input pins are connected to the any Digital circuit or microcontroller to control the speed and direction of the motor. You can toggle the input pins based on the following table to control your motor.

Input 1 = HIGH(5v)

Output 1 = HIGH

Motor 1 rotates in Clock wise Direction

Input 2 = LOW(0v)

Output 2 = LOW

Input 3 = HIGH(5v)

Output 1 = HIGH

Motor 2 rotates in Clock wise Direction

Input 4 = LOW(0v)

Output 2 = LOW

 

Input 1 = LOW(0v)

Output 1 = LOW

Motor 1 rotates in Anti-Clock wise Direction

Input 2 = HIGH(5v)

Output 2 = HIGH

Input 3 = LOW(0v)

Output 1 = LOW

Motor 2 rotates in Anti -Clock wise Direction

Input 4 = HIGH(5v)

Output 2 = HIGH

 

Input 1 = HIGH(5v)

Output 1 = HIGH

Motor 1 stays still

Input 2 = HIGH(5v)

Output 2 = HIGH

Input 3 = HIGH(5v)

Output 1 = LOW

Motor 2 stays still

Input 4 = HIGH(5v)

Output 2 = HIGH

 


Applications

  • Stepper Motor Drivers
  • DC Motor Drivers
  • Latching Relay Drivers

Typical Application

A typical application for the L293 device is driving a two-phase motor. Below is an example schematic displaying how to properly connect a two-phase motor to the L293 device.
Provide a 5-V supply to VCC1 and valid logic input levels to data and enable inputs. VCC2 must be connected to a power supply capable of supplying the needed current and voltage demand for the loads connected to the outputs.

Two-Phase Motor Driver (L293)


Pinout Details and Functions

The datasheet below is set for your better understanding of the 16 pins of the packages, the details of all 16 pins and the function of each pin are as follows:

NE Package

16-Pin PDIP

Top View

 

L293D pinout

Pinout functions:

PIN NAME

NO.

 TYPE

 DESCRIPTION

1,2EN

1

I

Enable driver channels 1 and 2 (active high input)

<1:4>A

2, 7, 10, 15

I

Driver inputs, noninverting

<1:4>Y

3, 6, 11, 14

O

Driver outputs

3,4EN

9

I

Enable driver channels 3 and 4 (active high input)

GROUND

4, 5, 12, 13

Device ground and heat sink pin. Connect to printed-circuit-board ground plane

 with multiple solid vias

VCC1

16

5-V supply for internal logic translation

VCC2

8

Power VCC for drivers 4.5 V to 36 V


Layout Example

L293D layout diagram


Product Manufacturer

Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) is an American technology company headquartered in Dallas, Texas, that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. It is one of the top 10 semiconductor companies worldwide based on sales volume. The company's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which account for more than 80% of its revenue. TI also produces TI digital light processing technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors. The company holds 45,000 patents worldwide as of 2016.


FAQ

  • What is l293d?

L293D IC is a dual H-bridge motor driver IC. One H-bridge is capable to drive a dc motor in bidirectional. L293D IC is a current enhancing IC as the output from the sensor is not able to drive motors itself so L293D is used for this purpose.

  • Which is better l293d vs l298n?

L293D Drivers Operates at 4.5V to 36V whereas L298N can be Operates at up to 46V. Maximum 600mA Current can be drawn through both channels of L293D whereas L298N Motor Driver can draw up to 2A from both channels.

  • What is the use of Enable pin in l293d?

L293D has an enable facility which helps you enable the IC output pins. If an enable pin is set to logic high, then state of the inputs match the state of the outputs. If you pull this low, then the outputs will be turned off regardless of the input states.

  • How many DC motors can be controlled by an IC l293d?

The L293D is a 16-pin Motor Driver IC which can control up to two DC motors simultaneously, in any direction.

  • How do I connect my Arduino to l293d?

Connect 5V to Enable 1 , Vss , and Vs on the L293D. Connect digital output pins (we're using 6 and 7) to input 1 and input 2 on the L293D. Connect your Arduino's GND to both GND pins on the same side of the L293D. Finally, connect output 1 and output 2 of the L293D to your motor pins.

  • What is H bridge in l293d?

H-Bridge Circuit. A H bridge is an electronic circuit that allows a voltage to be applied across a load in any direction. H-bridge circuits are frequently used in robotics and many other applications to allow DC motors to run forward & backward.

  • What is the function of H bridge?

An H-bridge is an electronic circuit that switches the polarity of a voltage applied to a load. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards or backwards.

  • What is l293d motor driver shield?

L293D shield is a driver board based on L293 IC, which can drive 4 DC motors and 2 stepper or Servo motors at the same time. Each channel of this module has the maximum current of 1.2A and doesn't work if the voltage is more than 25v or less than 4.5v.

  • How do I use the l293d motor driver module?

Connect 5V to Enable 1 , Vss , and Vs on the L293D. Connect digital output pins (we're using 6 and 7) to input 1 and input 2 on the L293D. Connect your Arduino's GND to both GND pins on the same side of the L293D.

  • What is the difference between l293d and l298n?

L293 is quadruple half-H driver while L298 is dual full-H driver, i.e, in L293 all four input- output lines are independent while in L298, a half H driver cannot be used independently, only full H driver has to be used. ... Hence, heat sink is provided in L298.

 

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