Welcome to the Battery!

Fundamentals

A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, mobile phones, and electric cars. All batteries are made up of three basic components: an anode (the '-' side), a cathode (the '+' side), and some kind of electrolyte (a substance that chemically reacts with the anode and cathode). In addition, nominal voltage, capacity and C-Rate are the main indicators of batteries.


When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode, and the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge is the primary batteries, while secondary (rechargeable) batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times using an applied electric current.


Types

Batteries are classified into primary and secondary forms. Primary batteries, or primary cells, can produce current immediately on assembly; secondary batteries, also known as secondary cells, or rechargeable batteries, must be charged before first use.


In addition, many types of electrochemical cells have been produced, with varying chemical processes and designs, including galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.


There are a lot of different battery types, all with their own applications, characteristics and construction. This page lists the different battery types which are described on the batteries guide.

Applications

Today, batteries are all around us. They power our wristwatches for months at a time. They keep our alarm clocks and telephones working, even if the electricity goes out. They run our smoke detectors, electric razors, power drills, mp3 players, thermostats, laptop and smartphone -- and the list goes on. 


These portable power packs are so prevalent, it's very easy to take them for granted. But the fraction of the stored charge that a battery can deliver depends on multiple factors, including battery chemistry, the rate at which the charge is delivered (current), the required terminal voltage, the storage period, ambient temperature and other factors.


Batteries used in a wide variety of applications. This category contains pages explaining various battery applications.

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