We are Apogeeweb Semiconductor Electronic

WELCOME TO OUR BLOG

Home arrow Semiconductor Information arrow Electromechanical Technology Course Books

arrow left

arrow right

Electromechanical Technology Course Books

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 5 Jan 2018
 4324

Warm hints: The word in this article is about 3000 and reading time is about 15 minutes.

Summary

With the rapid development and wide application of computer technology, mechatronics technology have become a hitherto unknown development, integrated computer and information technology, automatic control technology, sensor technology, servo drive technology and mechanical technology, cross system technology, is to electromechanical technology (Opto-mechatronics) development, increasingly wide range of applications.This artice is divided into eight parts to state electromechanical technology in great details.

 


Catalog

Ⅰ Electromechanial Introduction

Ⅱ Electromechanial Technician

Ⅲ Electromechanical Course

Ⅳ Electromechanical Job

Ⅴ Optical-mechatronics

Ⅵ Development Trends

Ⅶ Electromechanial Systems

Ⅷ Electromechanial Devices (main)

Ⅸ FAQ

 

 


Ⅰ Electromechanial Introduction

The concept of Mechatronics was first proposed in Japanese business circles around 1970, when they named it "Mechatronics", that is, combining application of mechanical technology and electronic technology. With the rapid development and wide application of computer technology, mechatronics technology have become a hitherto unknown development, integrated computer and information technology, automatic control technology, sensor technology, servo drive technology and mechanical technology, cross system technology, is to electromechanical technology (Opto-mechatronics) development, increasingly wide range of applications.

Optical Mechatronics industrial base picture

Ⅱ Electromechanial Technician

Before we read the following electromechanial technician,let's see a veido about it first:

 

This is a quick look into the Electromechanical Engineering Technician program at Fanshawe College.  This is one of the newest programs at the college. Electromechanial technician can be divided into as followings:

 

Mechanical Technique

Mechanical technology is the basis of mechanical and electrical integration, the key technology is how to adapt to mechanical and electrical integration technologies, to update the concept of the use of other high and new technology, the realization of the structure, material, performance changes to meet, reduce weight, reduce the size and improve the precision and improve the stiffness and improving the performance requirements. In the manufacturing process of mechatronic system, the classical mechanical theory and technology should rely on computer aided technology, and at the same time use AI and expert system to form a new generation of mechanical manufacturing technology.

 

Computer and Information Technology

Information exchange, access, operation, judgement and decision making, AI technology, expert system technology and neural network technology all belong to computer information processing technology.

 

System Technology

System technology that is the concept of the overall application of related technology, from the perspective of the overall objectives and systems, the total is divided into several functional units interconnected, interface technology is an important aspect of technology, it is the realization of each part of the system of organic connection guarantee.

 

Automatic Control Technology

It has a wide range. Under the guidance of control theory, system design, system simulation and field debugging are carried out. Control technologies include high-precision positioning control, speed control, adaptive control, self diagnosis correction, compensation, reappearance and retrieval.

 

Sensing Detection Technology

Sensing detection technology is the sensory organ of the system, and it is the key link to realize automatic control and automatic regulation. The more powerful it is, the higher the automation of the system. Modern engineering requires sensors to acquire information quickly and accurately and withstand severe environmental test. It is a guarantee for a mechanical and electrical integration system to achieve a high level.

 

Servo Drive Technology

It includes all kinds of transmission devices,such as electric,pneumatic,hydraulic and so on.Servo system is a conversion device and components to achieve-electrical signals to mechanicial actionand has a decisive impact on the dynamic performance,control quality and function of the system.

 

 


Ⅲ Electromechanical Course

Electromechanical course can be divided into three parts to state:

Training Target

The professional training of morality, intelligence and physique all-round development with machinery, electronics, liquid (gas) pressure to master basic theory of integration technology, electromechanical integration equipment, operation, maintenance, commissioning and maintenance, intermediate engineering and technical personnel basic methods of process design and processing technology to master the application of electromechanical integration equipment and basic processing skill.

 

Main Course

Electrical and electronic technology, mechanical design, mechanical processing machine, mechanical processing, hydraulic and pneumatic technology, detection technology, numerical control technology, electrical control technology, principle and application of single chip microcomputer, programmable controller and application of mechatronic systems, and design of such vehicles, ships, tools (fixture, test equipment etc.) are included in the.

 

The Professional Core Ability

  • A. mastering the maintenance ability of typical numerical control equipment.

  • B.the ability to master the operation of typical numerical control equipment.

Electro-Mechanical Technology PDF

Ⅳ Electromechanical Job

Mechatronics technology is widely used in the field of application. Graduates are mainly engaged in the technology and management of CNC equipment, such as maintenance, debugging, operation, manufacturing, installation and marketing, and the large number of jobs. The professional training with machinery, electronics, liquid (gas) pressure to master basic theory of integration technology, electromechanical integration equipment, operation, maintenance, commissioning and maintenance, the basic method of process design and processing technology to master the application of electromechanical integration equipment processing and basic skills of engineering and technical personnel. It also includes the occupations of three kinds of workers, electricity, cars and tongs.

 

Mechatronics technology is widely used in the field of application. Graduates are mainly engaged in the technology and management of CNC equipment, such as maintenance, debugging, operation, manufacturing, installation and marketing, and the large number of jobs. The main adaptable positions and employment directions are as follows:

  • 1) the technical work of the installation, debugging, production, operation and maintenance of the numerical control equipment.

  • 2) engaged in the programming and operation of numerical control equipment (CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, machining centers and other CNC equipment).

  • 3) engaged in the technical transformation, technical innovation, electrical maintenance, sales and after-sales service of CNC equipment.

Ⅴ Optical-mechatronics

Optical electromechanical integration technology is the integration and integration of microelectronics technology,computer technology,control technology,optical technology and mechanical technology.It is the foundation of many high-tech industries and high-tech equipment.It includes two aspects of product and technology:optical mechatronic product is a set of optical mechanical electronic,automatic control and communication technology in one of the high-tech products with high added value and function;electromechanial integration technology refers to the technology principle and the optical mechanical electrical integration products should be realized,the use and development of technology.

 

Opto-mechatronics technologyis a comprehensive high-tech which is composed of optics, optoelectronics, electronic information and mechanical manufacturing and other related technologies. It is the foundation of many high-tech industries and high-tech equipment. It enriches and broadens the connotation and extension of the optical mechatronics technology.

 


Mechatronics is a comprehensive interdisciplinary integration of machinery, electronics, optics, control, computers and information. Its development and progress depend on and promote the development and progress of related technologies. Therefore, the main development direction of Mechatronics is as follows:

 

Intellectualization

Intellectualization is an important development direction of the development of mechatronics technology in twenty-first Century.The research of artificial intelligence in the mechatronic builder has been paid more and more attention, and the intelligentization of robot and CNC machine tool is an important application. Here said the "intelligent" is the machine behavior, is based on control theory, the absorption of artificial intelligence, operations research, computer science, mathematics, psychology, physiology and chaotic dynamics of new ideas and new methods, simulation of human intelligence, it is judged, logical thinking, reasoning independent decision-making ability in order to get more control objectives.

 

To be sure, it is impossible and unnecessary to make mechatronics products have the same intelligence as people. However, high performance, high speed microprocessors make mechatronics products with low-level intelligence or part of human intelligence, which is completely possible and necessary.

 

Modularization

Modularization is an important and arduous project. Due to the wide variety of electromechanical integration products and manufacturers, developing and developing electromechanical integration units with standard mechanical interfaces, electrical interfaces, power interfaces and environmental interfaces is a very complicated but very important thing.

 

For example, we develop a power unit that integrates speed reduction, intelligent speed regulation and motor. It has functions of vision, image processing, recognition and ranging, and all kinds of mechanical devices that can perform typical operations. In this way, new products can be developed rapidly by using standard units, and the scale of production can be expanded at the same time. This requires the formulation of standards for the matching and interface of components and units.

 

Because of conflicts of interest, it is difficult to establish international or domestic standards, but it can be formed gradually through the formation of some large enterprises. Obviously, the benefits brought by standardization and serialization of electric products can be affirmed. Whether it's for production standard electromechanical integration units or for production of mechatronics products, scale will bring a bright future for Mechatronics enterprises.

 

Networking

In 1990s, the outstanding achievement of computer technology was network technology. The rise of network technology and the rapid development of science and technology, industrial production, politics, military, education does Juren daily life has brought great change. All kinds of networks will connect the global economy and production into one piece, and the competition among enterprises will be globalized.

 

Once the new product of Mechatronics is developed, as long as its function is unique and the quality is reliable, it will soon be sold all over the world. Due to the popularity of the Internet, various remote control and monitoring technologies based on network are in the ascendant, and the remote control terminal devices themselves are electromechanical integration products.

 

Fieldbus and LAN technology is household appliances networking has become a trend to use the family network (HomeNet) will be a variety of household appliances connected computer integrated appliance system to computer center (computerintegratedappliancesystem, CIAS), enables people to share various high technology brings convenience and happiness at home. Therefore, the mechatronics products are undoubtedly developing in the direction of network.

 

Microminiaturization

Microminiaturization began at the end of the 1980s, referring to the trend in the development of Mechatronics to micro machines and microscopically. It is called the microelectronic mechanical system (MEMS) abroad, which refers to the mechatronic products with a geometric size of no more than 1cm3, and develops to the micron and nanoscale. The integrated microelectromechanical products have small volume, less energy consumption and flexible movement, which have unparalleled advantages in biological medical, military and information. The bottleneck of the development of MEMS is micromachined technology. The processing of MEMS is processed by fine machining technology, namely, ultra precision technology, which includes two types of lithography and etching technology.

 

Green

The development of industry has brought great changes to people's life. On the one hand, the material is rich and the life is comfortable; on the other hand, the resources are reduced and the ecological environment is seriously polluted.

 

Therefore, people call for the protection of environmental resources and return to nature. The concept of green product came into being under this kind of voice, and green is the trend of the times. Green products meet the requirements of specific environmental protection and human health in the process of design, manufacture, use and destruction. They are harmless or harmless to the ecological environment, and the resource utilization rate is very high. The design of green mechanical and electrical integration products has a great future. The green of the mechatronics products mainly refers to the use of the ecological environment without pollution, and can be recycled after being scrapped.

 

Systematization

One of the characteristics of systematization is that the system architecture is further adopted by open and patterned bus structures. The system can be configured flexibly, carry out arbitrary cutting and combination, and seek to realize the coordinated control and comprehensive management of the multisubsystem. The two of the performance is that the communication function is greatly strengthened. In general, besides RS232, there are RS485 and DCS personification. In the future, mechatronics will pay more attention to the relationship between products and people, and the personification of mechatronics has two meanings.

 

On the one hand, the ultimate goal of mechatronics products is people. How to give mechanical and electrical integration products to people's intelligence, emotion and human nature is becoming more and more important. Especially for home robots, the upper level is human-machine integration. The other is to imitate biological mechanism (bionics) and develop a variety of mechatronics products. In fact, many mechatronics products are inspired by animals.

 

 


Ⅶ Electromechanial Systems

Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) involves many subjects such as physics, chemistry, optics, medicine, electronic engineering, material engineering, mechanical engineering, information engineering and bioengineering. The manufacturing processes of MEMS are mainly integrated circuit technology, micron / nano manufacturing process, small mechanical technology and other special processing work. MEMS will have a wide range of applications in the national economy and military system.

 

The United States has developed a MEMS accelerometer and sensor for automobile crash prevention and fuel saving, which can improve the safety of automobile and save oil by 10%. The US Department of defense alone can save billions of dollars per year in gasoline costs. The application of MEMS in Aeronautics and Astronautics can greatly save cost, improve the flexibility of the system, and lead to the reform of aerospace system.

 

For example, a prototype of a micro inertial measurement device with a scale of 2 cm * 2 cm * 0.5 cm and weighs 5 grams. In military applications, DARPA is the research and application of micro-electromechanical system for personal navigation for miniature inertial measurement unit, large capacity data storage devices, small analytical instruments, medical sensors, optical switches, network environment and safety monitoring of distributed sensing unattended etc..

 

The Bureau has demonstrated the accelerometer made on the basis of MEMS. It can withstand nearly 10.5 acceleration of impact force generated by artillery launch, and it can provide an economical guidance system for non guided munitions. Micro-electromechanical system envisaged in the military application and chemical agents, IFF alarm device, smart skin, distributed battlefield sensor networks etc..

Ⅷ Electromechanial Devices (main)

Mechanical and electrical equipment generally refers to machinery, electrical appliances and electrical automation equipment. In architecture, it refers to machinery and piping equipment besides geomembrane, woodworking, reinforcing bar and mud water. It is different from hardware, and it refers to the finished product that can realize certain functions.

 

With the continuous improvement of technology, the traditional mechanical equipment has entered a new phase of the combination of machine and electricity, and the scope of its application is constantly expanded. Since 1960s, computers have been popularized in the research, design, production and management of machinery industry, creating conditions for the development of machinery manufacturing to more complex and more precise directions. Mechanical and electrical equipment also began to develop to digital, automatic, intelligent and flexible, and entered a new stage of modern equipment.

Types of Electromechanial Devices

  • Lightning protection device: lightning arrester, lead line, grounding device, combined surge protector and other connecting conductor.

  • Lightning induction: when lightning discharge, the electrostatic induction and electromagnetic induction produced on the nearby conductor, which may cause electrical sparks between the metal parts.

  • Electromagnetic compatibility: equipment or systems have the ability to work normally in the electromagnetic environment and do not constitute the unbearable electromagnetic interference of anything in the environment.

  • Protective grounding: when the normal part of the electrical device is not exposed, the exposed part will be connected to the protective line (PE line) or the protective neutral line (PEN line) according to the grounding type of the system. It is called the protective grounding.

  • Surge protector: a device with nonlinear characteristics, which is used to limit transient overvoltages and inrush currents, and has nonlinear characteristics.

 


Ⅸ FAQ

1. What is electromechanical technology?

Electromechanical Technology combines computers, control systems, electrical systems and mechanical systems. These applications are used to run the systems and machines that power many industries. ... TSTC's Electromechanical Technology provides you with a pre-engineering level education in automation robotics.

 

2. What is the difference between mechatronics and electromechanical?

Simply put, electromechanical engineers study a core mechanical engineering with a side of electronics and coding, while mechatronics does a core of electrical with a side of mechanics. ... Both can implement control loops and build circuits, however, mechatronics wins by having a more in-depth understanding of control.

 

3. Where do electromechanical engineers work?

Electro-mechanical technicians work closely with electrical engineers and mechanical engineers. They work in many industrial environments, including energy, plastics, computer and communications equipment manufacturing, and aerospace. They often work both at production sites and in offices.

 

4. Is it electromechanical or electro-mechanical?

Electromechanical engineering (alternatively written as electromechanical eng., or electro-mechanical eng.) refers to the analysis, design, manufacture and maintenance of equipment and products based on the combination of electrical/electronic circuits and mechanical systems.

 

5. What is an electromechanical engineering technician?

Select and use a variety of troubleshooting techniques and equipment to assess, maintain, and repair electromechanical circuits, equipment, processes, systems, and subsystems. ... Install and troubleshoot basic computer hardware and programming to support the electromechanical engineering environment.

 

6. Does mechatronics have a future?

As more businesses advance their technologies and turn to sophisticated intelligent systems and robotics, mechatronics engineering will continue to grow in demand. Even manufacturing businesses considering a technology upgrade turn to mechatronics engineers in order to evaluate assembly line efficiency and costs.

 

7. Which is the first electromechanical computer?

Mark-I is the first electro-mechanical computer developed by Howard Aiken in 1937. In 1942, J.V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry 1942 developed the Atanasoff Berry computer. EDVAC was developed by John Mauchly, John Presper Eckert with the assistance of John Von Neumann in 1952.

 

8. What are electromechanical instruments?

These are based on the mechanical interaction between currents, between a current and a magnetic field, or between electrified conductors.

 

9. Which kind of device is an electro-mechanical relay?

As their name implies, electromechanical relays are electromagnetic devices that convert a magnetic flux generated by the application of a low voltage electrical control signal either AC or DC across the relay terminals, into a pulling mechanical force that operates the electrical contacts within the relay.

 

10. How many types of electromechanical relays are there?

The two major types of relays are the electromechanical relay and the solid-state relay. An electromechanical relay (EMR) is a switching device that has sets of contacts that are closed by a magnetic effect. A solid-state relay (SSR) is a switching device that has no contacts and switches entirely by electronic means.

 

 


 

Book Recommendation

  • Mechatronics and Control of Electromechanical Systems

Due to the enormous impact of mechatronics systems, we encounter mechatronics and micromechatronic systems in our daily activities. Recent trends and novel technologies in engineering have increased the emphasis on integrated analysis, design, and control. This book examines motion devices (actuators, motors, transducers and sensors), power electronics, controllers, and electronic solutions with the main emphasis placed on high-performance mechatronic systems. Analysis, design, optimization, control, and implementation issues, as well as a variety of enabling mechatronic systems and devices, are also covered. The results extend from the scope of mechatronic systems to the modern hardware-software developments, utilizing enabling solutions and placing the integrated system perspectives in favor of consistent engineering solutions.

--Sergey Edward Lyshevski (Author)

  • Design of Electromechanical Products: A Systems Approach

Design, development and life-cycle management of any electromechanical product is a complex task that requires a cross-functional team spanning multiple organizations, including design, manufacturing, and service. Ineffective design techniques, combined with poor communication between various teams, often leads to delays in product launches, with last minute design compromises and changes. The purpose of Design of Electromechanical Products: A Systems Approach is to provide a practical set of guidelines and best practices for driving world-class design, development, and sustainability of electromechanical products. The information provided within this text is applicable across the entire span of product life-cycle management, from initial concept work to the detailed design, analysis, and development stages, and through to product support and end-of-life. It is intended for professional engineers, designers, and technical managers, and provides a gateway to developing a product’s design history file ("DHF") and device aster record ("DMR"). These tools enable design engineers to communicate a product’s design, manufacturability, and service procedures with various cross-functional teams.

--Ali Jamnia  (Author)

 

 

  • Electromechanical Motion Devices

This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines—as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles.Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac machines, and brushless dc machines. It also discusses steady-state and transient performance in addition to their applications.

--Paul Krause (Author),‎ Oleg Wasynczuk (Author),‎ Steven D. Pekarek (Author)

 


Relevant information about "Electromechanical Technology Course Books"

About the article "Electromechanical Technology Course Books", If you have better ideas, don't hesitate to  write your thoughts in the following comment area. You also can find more articles about electronic semiconductor through Google search engine, or refer to the following related articles.

 

Best Sales of diode

Photo Part Company Description Pricing (USD)
AM29DL323GB-70EI AM29DL323GB-70EI Company:AMD Remark:Flash, 2MX16, 70ns, PDSO48, MO-142DD, TSOP-48 Price:
Call
Inquiry
20021311-00080T4LF 20021311-00080T4LF Company:Amphenol ICC (FCI) Remark:CONN RCPT 80POS 0.05 GOLD PCB Price:
1+: $6.10000
10+: $5.85600
100+: $4.88020
500+: $4.14818
1000+: $3.53815
5000+: $3.17213
Inquiry
ADSP-2187LBSTZ-210 ADSP-2187LBSTZ-210 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DSP CONTROLLER 16BIT 100-TQFP Price:
1+: $88.85000
10+: $84.26000
25+: $83.11400
Inquiry
ADSP-BF525KBCZ-6A ADSP-BF525KBCZ-6A Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DSP 16BIT 600MHZ 208CSBGA Price:
25+: $32.75920
Inquiry
ADSP-BF561SKBCZ-6V ADSP-BF561SKBCZ-6V Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DSP 32BIT 600MHZ 256CSBGA Price:
1+: $51.00000
10+: $47.91100
25+: $46.36520
100+: $44.81950
Inquiry
ADSP-BF703KBCZ-4 ADSP-BF703KBCZ-4 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DSP LP 256KB L2SR 184BGA Price:
62+: $913.01000
Inquiry

Alternative Models

Part Compare Manufacturers Category Description
Mfr.Part#:540-44-044-24-000000 Compare: 940-44-044-24-000000 VS 540-44-044-24-000000 Manufacturers:Mill-Max Category:IC and Component Sockets Description: Conn PLCC Socket SKT 44POS 2.54mm Solder ST Thru-Hole Tube
Mfr.Part#:961103-5604-AR Compare: Current Part Manufacturers:3M Category:Board to Board Connectors Description: 3M 961103-5604-AR Board-To-Board Connector, 2.54mm, 3Contacts, Header, 961 Series, Through Hole, 1Rows
Mfr.Part#:22-28-8034 Compare: 961103-5604-AR VS 22-28-8034 Manufacturers:Molex Category:Headers & Receptacles Description: Conn Unshrouded Header HDR 3POS 2.54mm Solder RA Thru-Hole KK® Bag
Mfr.Part#:61300311021 Compare: 961103-5604-AR VS 61300311021 Manufacturers:Wurth Electronics Category:Board to Board Connectors Description: WURTH ELEKTRONIK 61300311021 Board-To-Board Connector, Right Angle, 2.54mm, 3Contacts, Header, WR-PHD Series, Through Hole

Ordering & Quality

Image Mfr. Part # Company Description Package PDF Qty Pricing (USD)
AD5204BRUZ10 AD5204BRUZ10 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DGT POT 10KOHM 256TAP 24TSSOP Package:24-TSSOP
DataSheet
In Stock:3776
Inquiry
Price:
Call
Inquiry
AD8221ARMZ-R7 AD8221ARMZ-R7 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC INST AMP 1 CIRCUIT 8MSOP Package:8-TSSOP, 8-MSOP (0.118", 3.00mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:4000
Inquiry
Price:
1000+: $3.30600
Inquiry
AD8676BRZ-REEL7 AD8676BRZ-REEL7 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC OPAMP GP 2 CIRCUIT 8SOIC Package:8-SOIC (0.154", 3.90mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:3000
Inquiry
Price:
1000+: $3.19000
Inquiry
AD9650BCPZ-25 AD9650BCPZ-25 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC ADC 16BIT PIPELINED 64LFCSP Package:64-VFQFN Exposed Pad, CSP
DataSheet
In Stock:421
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $84.07000
10+: $79.73300
25+: $78.64800
Inquiry
AD9767ASTZ AD9767ASTZ Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DAC 14BIT A-OUT 48LQFP Package:48-LQFP
DataSheet
In Stock:135
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $26.40000
10+: $24.35000
25+: $23.25600
100+: $19.83600
Inquiry
AD9915BCPZ AD9915BCPZ Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DDS 2.5GHZ 12BIT 88LFCSP Package:88-VFQFN Exposed Pad, CSP
DataSheet
In Stock:321
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $160.85000
Inquiry
ADA4004-2ARMZ-R7 ADA4004-2ARMZ-R7 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC OPAMP GP 2 CIRCUIT 8MSOP Package:8-TSSOP, 8-MSOP (0.118", 3.00mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:2000
Inquiry
Price:
1000+: $4.08900
Inquiry
ADG439FBRZ-REEL ADG439FBRZ-REEL Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC MULTIPLEXER DUAL 4X1 16SOIC Package:16-SOIC (0.154", 3.90mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:5000
Inquiry
Price:
2500+: $6.00300
Inquiry

Related Articles

pinglun 3 comments

    • pingluntus
    • Ropaxin RX on 2018/12/23 9:44:13

    I conceive this web site has got very excellent written articles articles.

    • pingluntus
    • calvin klein underwear on 2019/1/19 0:09:27

    I all the time used to study piece of writing in news papers but now as I am a user of internet so from now I am using net for posts, thanks to web.

    • pingluntus
    • mens health on 2019/1/20 3:20:13

    Link exchange is nothing else except it is only placing the other person's blog link on your page at appropriate place and other person will also do same for you.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

 
 
   
 
code image
Rating: poor fair good very good excellent

# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z