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Jan 3 2018

Basic Knowledge of Battery to Advanced

Introduction

A battery means a part of a cup, tank or other container or composite container that contains electrolyte solution and metal electrode to generate electric current, and can convert. Focus on the theme of battery types, common battery category, several battery applications and etc. The article is mainly talking about some basic knowledge of battery in great detail. Learn about battery technology, battery maintenance and battery life at here.

Battery Electricity Technology

Catalog

Introduction

Ⅰ Battery Technology

1.1 Battery Life

1.2 Battery Capacity

II Types of Batteries

III Common Battery Category

3.1 Zinc-Carbon Batteries

3.2 Alkaline Batteries

3.3 Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

3.4 Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

3.5 Li-ion Batteries

3.6 Li-Polymer Batteries

IV Battery Applications

4.1 Electric Vehicle Battery

4.2 Laptop Battery

4.3 Mobile Phone Battery

V Battery Sizes

5.1 AAA Cells (No.7)

5.2 AA Cells (No.5)

5.3 C Cells (No.2)

5.4 D Cells (No.1)

5.5 AAAA Cells (No.9)

5.6 A Cells

5.7 Sub-C Cells

5.8 N Cells

5.9 F Cells

5.10 Other Battery Types

VI Precautions for Battery Use

VII Harm of Waste Batteries and Their Recycling

VIII Conclusion


Ⅰ Battery Technology

1.1 Battery Life

The energy a battery can hold is measured in capacity. And its service life is specified in number of cycles.

  • 1. All the rechargeable batteries are consumable components that will decrease their chemical efficiency as they age. The use of device can also affect the performance of the battery lifespan. 

  • 2. There are many factors that affect the battery life:

a. Ambient temperature
Excessive ambient temperature has a great impact on the service life of batteries. When the temperature rises, the plate corrosion of the battery will increase, which will shorten the battery life.

 

b. Overcharge
Overcharging will cause the internal pressure of batteries to increase, battery deformation, leakage, etc., and the battery performance will also be significantly reduced and damaged.

 

c. Overdischarge
Overdischarge will cause damage to the active material of the electrode, loss of reaction ability, shorten the life of the battery, and severely make the internal structure of the battery unable to maintain balance, resulting in bulging, then leakage or explosion.

1.2 Battery Capacity

  • Aging batteries can not provide heavy loads, especially at low capacitor, which can cause the device to  shut down suddenly.

  • Battery capacity is one of the important indicators to measure battery performance. It represents the amount of electricity released by the battery under certain conditions (discharge rate, temperature, termination voltage, etc.). It is divided into actual capacity, theoretical capacity and rated capacity according to different conditions. The actual capacity of the battery depends on the amount of active material in the battery and the utilization rate of the active material. The more active material, the higher the active material utilization rate and the larger the battery capacity. On the contrary, the smaller the capacity.

 

II Types of Batteries

Batteries play an important role in our daily life. Lighting, mobile phones, cameras, watches, microphones, laptops, electric cars, new energy vehicles, electric toys, remote controllers ... all of these devices need batteries. There are many types of batteries, lithium batteries, solar batteries, fuel cells, air batteries, lead-acid batteries, carbon batteries... Here let me introduce you more about batteries. First, it is about battery types

By the type of electrolyte

By the working nature and storage way

By the material of battery polarity

Alkaline batteries(potassium hydroxide solution-based): Alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide batteries (commonly known as alkaline manganese batteries or alkaline batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries

Primary batteries (original battery: batteries that can not be recharged ): zinc manganese batteries, lithium batteries;

Secondary batteries(rechargeable batteries): lead-acid batteries, NiMH batteries, lithium-ion batteries

Zinc series batteries: zinc-manganese batteries, zinc-silver batteries, etc.

Nickel series batteries: nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries

Acid batteries (mainly use sulfuric acid as a medium): lead-acid batteries

Fuel cells (no active substances in battery polarity but need to be added from outside): hydrogen fuel cells

Lead series batteries: lead-acid batteries;

Lithium series batteries: lithium-ion batteries, lithium manganese batteries

Neutral batteries(salt solution as electrolytes): zinc-manganese batteries and seawater batteries (magnesium silver batteries)

Reserve batteries( electrolyte will be added when the battery is used; when stored,there is no direct contact with the electrolyte): seawater batteries

Manganese dioxide series batteries: zinc-manganese batteries, alkaline manganese batteries

Organic electrolyte batteries (organic solutions as electrolytes): lithium batteries, lithium-ion batteries

Other batteries: solar cells ( convert light energy into electricity) ; nuclear batteries(devices that convert nuclear energy directly into electricity).

Air (oxygen) series batteries:zinc-air batteries, lithium-air batteries, aluminum air batteries.

 

III Common Battery Category

3.1 Zinc-Carbon Batteries

Zinc Carbon

Zinc-carbon batteries, commonly known as carbon batteries, is commonly used batteries in daily life and is also the cheapest kind of battery. This kind of battery has low battery capacity and is easy to leak. It is used in TV remote control and other products. Primary battery voltage: 1.5V.

 

3.2 Alkaline Batteries

Alkaline batteries are most commonly used batteries recently. Its advantage is its durable power, which can be 7 times the carbon battery power. Its current output is stable.Also there is no leakage. It can be used in equipment with large power consumption. Primary battery voltage: 1.5V

 

3.3 Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

 

Nickel-cadmium batteries--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in HistoryNickel-cadmium batteries--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

 

Disadvantages of nickel-cadmium batteries: large size, heavy weight, small capacity, self-discharge, memory effect, not environmental friendly. Advantages: can be repeatedly charged more than 500 times, which is very economical; small internal resistance, high current discharge. Therefore, this product is commonly used in electric tools. Rechargeable battery voltage: 1.2V

 

3.4 Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

nimh_batteries--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

Compared with nickel-cadmium batteries, NiMH batteries has a shortcomings that they can not be used in high current discharge (there are already factories producing high-current discharged NiMH batteries). The advantage is that the capacity is more than twice at the same size of nickel cadmium. With its small memory effect and non-polluting characteristics, it is known as green batteries. Rechargeable battery voltage: 1.2V.

 

3.5 Li-ion Batteries

lithium-ion--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

The shell of lithium-ion battery (Li-ion Battery) includes steel and aluminum shell. Aluminum shell has 10% to 15% higher capacity than steel shell. Advantages: small size, high capacity, high voltage. Shape: cylindrical, square, dysmorphism. Commonly used in mobile phone batteries, PDA batteries, laptop batteries voltage: 3.7V.

 

3.6 Li-Polymer Batteries

Li-polymer Battery--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

Lithium-polymer battery (Li-polymer Battery) and lithium-ion battery comparison: Outer packaging is aluminum-plastic packaging, which is different from the lithium-ion metal case. Due to the soft packaging technology, thinner batteries can be produced. Shape can be freely changed. Advantages: light weight, higher capacity, small resistance, high-current discharge support. Common used in high-end mobile phone batteries, laptop batteries, all kinds of electric tools and model batteries voltage: 3.7V.

 

IV Battery Applications

battery application--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

Among the many types of batteries, which battery should be used? In general, household appliances, such as radios, clocks, toys, remote controls and so on are using primary batteries. Many portable electronic products such as: laptops, cell phones, electric cars, etc., will use secondary batteries. In practical application, there is usually a battery or several batteries in series-parallel to form a battery pack.

 

4.1 Electric Vehicle Battery

4 kinds of power batteries are used for electric vehicles: valve-regulated lead-acid maintenance-free batteries, colloidal lead-acid batteries, Ni-Mh batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The majority of electric vehicles are equipped with lead-acid batteries because of their low cost and cost-effective.

 

4.2 Laptop Battery

NiCd batteries are the first batteries to be introduced, but as this battery had a "memory effect" and had to be discharged before each charge, it is inconvenient to use. So it was soon replaced by  NiMH batteries. Not only did NiMH have no "Memory effect", but its power capacity can be inproved to more than 10% per unit weight.

 

4.3 Mobile Phone Battery

Mobile phone batteries are generally using lithium batteries and nickel-metal hydride batteries. mAh is the unit of battery capacity.

 

V Battery Sizes

battery sizes--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

5.1 AAA Cells (No.7)

AAA cells: height 44.0mm, diameter 10.0mm, is often used in the remote control, electric toothbrushes, cameras, radios, alarm clocks, wireless mouse, children's electric toys, razors and other devices that has restrictions on the size but with not too much power consumption. Flashlights are also using this type of battery, but mostly in multi-section combination used.

5.2 AA Cells (No.5)

This type is most commonly used, with a size of the height of 49.0mm, diameter 14.0mm. Mostly used in electric razors, electronic toys, household electronic devices, etc. Many AA rechargeable batteries are also used as battery packs.

5.3 C Cells (No.2)

C cell is smaller than No. 1 battery, with a height of 49.5mm and diameter of 25.3mm. Mostly used in flashlights, toys, audio-visual equipment, and also used in gas stoves, water heaters. What's more, it can be replaced with AA battery using a plastic sabot (size adaptor), with proportional loss of capacity.

5.4 D Cells (No.1)

This type is as commonly used as AA battery, with a height of 59.0mm and diameter of 32.3mm. It can be used in electronic ignition equipment, flashlights, gas stoves and many other occasions. What's more, it can be replaced with AA battery using a plastic sabot (size adaptor), with proportional loss of capacity.

5.5 AAAA Cells (No.9)

Height 41.5mm, diameter 8.1mm. Mostly used in some high-end electronic devices, such as Bluetooth headsets and stylus. Sometimes used in pen flashlights, laser pointers, powered styluses, calculators, fishing lures.

5.6 A Cells

A cells are generally used as battery packs, such as smart meters, gas meters, video cameras, cameras, telephones, etc. The height of type batteries is about the same as the height of batteries No. 2 with a slightly smaller diameter and a height of 49.0 mm and a diameter of 16.8 mm. Except that, more common as a NiCd or NiMH cell size than a primary size, popular in older laptop batteries and hobby battery packs.

5.7 Sub-C Cells

Type Sub-C cells are generally used as a battery pack, with a height of 42.0mm, diameter 22.1mm.

5.8 N Cells

N-type battery is also generally used as a battery pack. Due to its small size, it will also be used on electronic devices with limited volume, such as the doorbell, etc., height 28.5mm, diameter 11.7mm. Rechargeable nickel–cadmium and nickel–metal hydride are far less common than other rechargeable sizes.

5.9 F Cells

Type F cells are also used as battery packs: height 89.0mm, diameter 32.3mm. Four F cells are often found within 6 volt rectangular lantern batteries.

5.10 Other Battery Types

23A (12V),27A (12V), 10A (9V), 25A (9V), 6F22 (9V), F22 (6V), 11A (6V), 26A (6V), 476A (6V), 2X625A (3V)... these small square or cylindrical batteries, are usually stacked by the button battery, and often used in multimeters, smoke detectors and other instruments.

 

VI Precautions for Battery Use

precautions1--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

  • 1. Electrical appliances and battery contacts should be cleaned, if necessary, wiped with a damp cloth, correctly labeled according to polarity after dried .

  • 2. Do not mixed use old and new batteries; Do not mixed use the same type but different electrochemical types or brands of batteries.

  • 3. Primary battery can not be heated or charged, otherwise it may explode.

  • 4. Do not disassemble the battery, do not heat the battery, do not short-circuit the battery (the positive and negative battery direct access by wire)

  • 5. Remove the battery in time if not in use, turn off the power after use.

  • 6. Do not discard batteries, separate them from other wastes as much as possible.

 

VII Harm of Waste Batteries and Their Recycling

  • Harm of Waste Batteries

In waste batteries, the metal mercury can dissolve in fat, which will cause central nervous diseases, teratogenicity, mutagenic, carcinogenic and even death among animals. Cadmium will soften bones, cause bone deformation, if serious, it will cause natural fracture and even death; salt of zinc will result in protein precipitation, which has a stimulating effect on the skin and mucous membranes; lead will mainly lead to anemia, neurological dysfunction and kidney damage, inhibition of hemoglobin anabolism; Nickel dissolved in blood, which will damage the central nervous system, causing vascular variability; Manganese can cause neurological dysfunction, comprehensive dysfunction and even mental symptoms.

waste-hazard--The Most Comprehensive basic Knowledge of Battery in History

  • Battery Recycling

95% material of the waste batteries can be recycled, especially heavy metals. Waste lead-acid batteries can recycle 50 ~ 60kg lead. There are more mature technology to deal with recycling of cadmium batteries in foreign countries. About 20kg of metal cadmium can be recovered from 100kg waste battery containing cadmium. We can see the great practical significance of recovery of heavy metal resources. However, domestic waste battery recycling is still disputed. At present, only lead-acid batteries (car batteries) have their own waste battery recycling system, which other types of batteries don’t have.

 

VIII Conclusion

Battery technology is pursuing new breakthroughs today. Electric car makers are looking for cheaper, lighter, more powerful and more durable batteries. Electronic equipment manufacturers are also looking for batteries that are more reliable, have longer life and charge faster. The wearable and medical implantable device manufacturers are more inclined to smaller, longer battery life technology. Renewable energy companies are also looking for battery technology that can charge and discharge tens of thousands of times. It is believed that the future of battery technology can help human civilization to reach a whole new level.

 

Recommended Reading

Battery Basic: Types of Electric Battery
What is the Self-discharge of Batteries?
Battery Technology: Lithium-ion Charging Basics Analysis
Lithium Battery and Lithium-ion Battery Chemistry Information

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