We are Apogeeweb Semiconductor Electronic

WELCOME TO OUR BLOG

Home arrow Sensors arrow The Techniques to Improve Capacitive Touch Sensing

arrow left

arrow right

The Techniques to Improve Capacitive Touch Sensing

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 26 Dec 2017
 6391
capacitors

We have published the article to talk some basic knowledge about knowledge of Capacitive Touch Sensing of Sensor. In this article, there are some basic cap-sense circuit configurations and discuss how to deal with low-frequency and high-frequency noise. Let's look at this short video and review some basic knowledge about capacitive sensors first.

 

Catalog

Ⅰ Measuring change

Ⅱ RC Time Constant

Ⅲ Variable capacitor, Variable frequency

Ⅳ Reality

Ⅴ FAQ

 

Ⅰ Measuring change

If you have read the article that I noticed in the first paragraph, you will know that the essence of capacitive touch sensing is the change in capacitance that occurs when an object approaches a capacitor. The presence of a finger increases the capacitance by

  • 1) introducing a substance (i.e., human flesh) with a relatively high dielectric constant

  • 2) providing a conductive surface that creates additional capacitance in parallel with the existing capacitor.

Right!  The mere fact that the capacitance changes are not particularly useful. To actually perform capacitive touch sensing, we need a circuit that can measure capacitance with enough accuracy to consistently identify the increase in capacitance caused by the presence of the finger. There are various ways to do this, some quite straightforward, others more sophisticated. In this article we will look at two general approaches to implementing capacitive-sense functionality; the first is based on an RC (resistor-capacitor) time constant, and the second is based on frequency shifts.

 

Ⅱ RC Time Constant

When first time to realized that higher math actually has some relationship with the exponential curve representing the voltage across a charging or discharging capacitor, I experienced a vague feeling of university nostalgia. There’s something about it—maybe that was one of the first times I realized that higher math actually has some relationship to reality, or maybe in this age of grape-harvesting robots something is appealing about the simplicity of a discharging capacitor. In any event, we know that this exponential curve changes when either resistance or capacitance changes. Let’s say we have an RC circuit composed of a 1 MΩ resistor and a capacitive touch sensor with the typical fingerless capacitance of 10 pF.

RC circuit composed of a 1 MΩ resistor and a capacitive touch sensor with typical fingerless capacitance of 10 pF

 

We can use a general-purpose input/output pin (configured as an output) to charge the sensor cap up to the logic-high voltage. Next, we need the capacitor to discharge through the large resistor. It’s important to understand that you cannot simply switch the output state to logic low. An I/O pin configured as an output will drive a logic-low signal, i.e., it will provide the output with a low-impedance connection to the ground node. Thus, the capacitor would discharge rapidly through this low impedance—so rapidly that the microcontroller could not detect the subtle timing variations created by small changes in capacitance. What we need here is a high-impedance pin that will force almost all of the current to discharge through the resistor, and this can be accomplished by configuring the pin as an input. So first you set the pin as a logic-high output, then the discharge phase is initiated by changing the pin to an input. The resulting voltage will look something like this:

 

resulting voltage

 

If someone touches the sensor and thereby creates an additional 3 pF of capacitance, the time constant will increase, as follows:

The techniques to improve capacitive touch sensing

 

The discharge time is not much different by human standards, but a modern microcontroller could certainly detect this change. Let’s say we have a timer clocked at 25 MHz; we start the timer when we switch the pin to input mode. We can use this timer to track the discharge time by configuring the same pin to function as a trigger that initiates a capture event (“capturing” means storing the timer value in a separate register). The capture event will occur when the discharging voltage crosses the pin’s logic-low threshold, e.g., 0.6 V. As shown in the following plot, the difference in discharge time with a threshold of 0.6 V is ΔT = 5.2 µs.

 

The techniques to improve capacitive touch sensing

 

With a timer clock-source period of 1/(25 MHz) = 40 ns, this ΔT corresponds to 130 ticks. Even if the change in capacitance were reduced by a factor of 10, we would still have 13 ticks of difference between an untouched sensor and a touched sensor.

 

So the idea here is to repeatedly charge and discharge the capacitor while monitoring the discharge time; if the discharge time exceeds a predetermined threshold, the microcontroller assumes that a finger has come into “contact” with the touch-sensitive capacitor (I put “contact” in quotation marks because the finger never actually touches the capacitor—as mentioned in the previous article, the capacitor is separated from the external environment by solder mask and the device’s enclosure). However, real life is a little more complicated than the idealized discussion presented here; error sources are discussed below in the “Dealing with Reality” section.

 

Ⅲ Variable capacitor, Variable frequency

In the frequency-shift-based implementation, the capacitive sensor is used as the “C” portion of an RC oscillator, such that a change in capacitance causes a change in frequency. The output signal is used as the input to a counter module that counts the number of rising or falling edges that occur within a certain measurement period. When an approaching finger causes an increase in the capacitance of the sensor, the frequency of the oscillator’s output signal decreases, and thus the edge count also decreases.

 

The so-called relaxation oscillator is a common circuit that can be used for this purpose. It requires a few resistors and a comparator in addition to the touch-sensitive capacitor; this seems like a lot more trouble than the charge/discharge technique discussed above, but if your microcontroller has an integrated comparator module, it’s not too bad.

 

I’m not going to go into detail on this oscillator circuit because 1) it is discussed elsewhere, including here and here, and 2) it seems unlikely that you would want to use the oscillator approach when there are many microcontrollers and discrete ICs that offer high-performance capacitive-touch-sense functionality. If you have no choice but to create your own capacitive-touch-sensing circuit, I think that the charge/discharge technique discussed above is more straightforward. Otherwise, make your life a little simpler by choosing a microcontroller with dedicated cap-sense hardware.

 

The capacitive-sense peripheral in the EFM32 microcontrollers from Silicon Labs is an example of an integrated module based on the relaxation-oscillator approach:

capacitive-sense peripheral in the EFM32 microcontrollers

 

The multiplexer allows the oscillation frequency to be controlled by eight different touch-sensitive capacitors. By quickly cycling through the channels, the chip can effectively monitor eight touch-sensitive buttons simultaneously, because the microcontroller’s operating frequency is so high relative to the speed at which a finger moves.

 

Ⅳ Reality

 

High and low frequency noise in a capacitive-touch-sense system

 

We must notice that a capacitive-touch-sense system will be afflicted by both high and low-frequency noise.

 

The high-frequency noise causes minor sample-to-sample variations in the measured discharge time or edge count. For example, the finger-less charge/discharge circuit discussed above might have a discharge time of 675 ticks, then 685 ticks, then 665 ticks, then 670 ticks, and so forth. The significance of this noise depends on the expected finger-induced change in discharge time. If the capacitance increases by 30%, the ΔT will be 130 ticks. If our high-frequency variation is only about ±10 ticks, we can easily distinguish signal from noise.

 

However, a 30% increase in capacitance is probably near the maximum amount of change that we could reasonably expect. If we get only a 3% chance, the ΔT is 13 ticks, which is too close to the noise floor. One way to reduce the effect of noise is to increase the magnitude of the signal, and you can do this by reducing the physical separation between the PCB capacitor and the finger. Often, though, the mechanical design is constrained by other factors, so you have to make the best of whatever signal magnitude you get. In this case, you need to lower the noise floor, which can be accomplished by averaging.

 

For example, each new discharge time could be compared not to the previous discharge time but to the mean of the last 4 or 8 or 32 discharge times. The frequency-shift technique discussed above automatically incorporates averaging because small variations around the mean frequency will not significantly affect the number of cycles counted within a measurement period that is long relative to the oscillation period.

 

Low-frequency noise refers to long-term variations in the fingerless sensor capacitance; these can be caused by environmental conditions. This sort of noise cannot be averaged out because the variation could persist for a very long period of time. Thus, the only way to effectively deal with low-frequency noise is to be adaptable: The threshold used to identify the presence of a finger can’t be a fixed value. Instead, it should be regularly adjusted based on measured values that do not exhibit significant short-term variations, such as those caused by the approach of a finger.

 

All in all, we notice that capacitive touch sensing does not require complex hardware or highly sophisticated firmware. It is nonetheless a versatile, robust technology that can provide major performance improvements over mechanical alternatives.

 

Ⅴ FAQ

1. How do I increase my capacitive sensor?

In most cases, simply increasing the sensing area will lead to an improvement in sensitivity. When the sensing area is limited by the application, the value of the CCPC capacitor has to be increased to increase the sensitivity. Using a bigger triggering object can also increase sensitivity.

 

2. How can I make my touch screen capacitive?

Probably the most interesting material that can be used to activate a capacitive touch screen is a sponge. It's cheap, effective and actually cleans your screen as you use it. But a sponge is a bit too flexible to make an effective stylus as it is.

 

3. How does capacitive touch sensing work?

A capacitive sensor uses the characteristics of a capacitor and its electrical field to form a sensor. Capacitive sensors work by detecting any change in the electric field the sensor can register either touch or proximity, displacement, as well as the level detection of humidity and fluids.

 

4. On which factor the output of the capacitive touch sensor depends?

The larger the area of the plates, the larger is the capacitance. The smaller the distance between the two plates, the higher is the capacitance. The insulating material determines the dielectric constant.

 

5. What is a capacitive touch screen?

A capacitive touch screen is a control display that uses the conductive touch of a human finger or a specialized device for input. Many current smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices rely on capacitive touch, including Android phones and Microsoft Surface, as well as Apple's iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch.

 

6. What's the difference between capacitive and resistive touch screens?

Unlike the resistive touch displays that rely on mechanical pressure applied to the surface, a capacitive touchscreen makes use of the human body's natural conductivity to operate. These screens are made of transparent, conductive material—usually ITO—coated onto a glass material.

 

7. Where are capacitive sensors used?

Capacitive sensors are used in the measurement of brake disc deformation. Due to the high-temperature development, very few sensors are suitable for operating close to the measurement object. Capacitive transducers detect changes in the nanometer range and measure the wear on the brake disc.

 

8. What's the advantage of a capacitive touch sensor?

The advantage of Surface Capacitive touch technology is that it offers users a better image quality than 5-wire resistive touch. The screen tends to be more durable and boasts excellent water, grease and dust resistance, as well as high resistance to scratching.

 

9. How the XY position of a capacitive touch screen is obtained calculated?

In any case, the touch position is determined by measuring the distribution of signal changes between the X and Y electrodes, and a mathematical algorithm is then used to process the changed signal levels to determine the XY coordinates of the touchpoint.

 

10. Which materials work with capacitive touch screens?

Material that will act as a conductor for electron ‘flow’ by reducing the atmospheric pressure sensed by the digitizer when it is touched, compared to the pressure sensed when the capacitive touch circuit has an open condition.

Best Sales of diode

Photo Part Company Description Pricing (USD)
ACS723LLCTR-10AU-T ACS723LLCTR-10AU-T Company:Allegro MicroSystems Remark:SENSOR CURRENT HALL 10A DC Price:
3000+: $1.83820
Inquiry
ACS764XLFTR-16AU-T ACS764XLFTR-16AU-T Company:Allegro MicroSystems Remark:SENSOR CURRENT HALL 16A DC Price:
Call
Inquiry
EP2SGX60EF1152C3 EP2SGX60EF1152C3 Company:Altera Corporation Remark:Field Programmable Gate Array, 60440 CLBs, 717MHz, 60440-Cell, CMOS, PBGA1152, MS-034AAR-1, FBGA-1152 Price:
Call
Inquiry
AM29DL162DT-90EI AM29DL162DT-90EI Company:AMD Remark:Flash, 1MX16, 90ns, PDSO48, MO-142B, TSOP-48 Price:
Call
Inquiry
AM29LV160DT-120EC AM29LV160DT-120EC Company:AMD Remark:1MX16 FLASH 3V PROM, 120ns, PDSO48, MO-142DD, TSOP-48 Price:
Call
Inquiry
AD667SD-883B AD667SD-883B Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DAC 12BIT W/BUFF LATCH 28CDIP Price:
1+: $231.17000
Inquiry

Alternative Models

Part Compare Manufacturers Category Description
Mfr.Part#:Z0107MNT1G Compare: Current Part Manufacturers:ON Semiconductor Category:TRIAC Diodes Description: ON SEMICONDUCTOR Z0107MNT1G Triac, 600V, 1A, SOT-223, 7mA, 1.3V, 1W
Mfr.Part#:BT134W-600D,115 Compare: Z0107MNT1G VS BT134W-600D,115 Manufacturers:NXP Category:TRIAC Diodes Description: NXP BT134W-600D,115 Triac, 600V, 1A, SOT-223, 10mA, 1.5V, 5W
Mfr.Part#:BT1308W-600D,115 Compare: Z0107MNT1G VS BT1308W-600D,115 Manufacturers:NXP Category:TRIAC Diodes Description: Thyristor TRIAC 600V 10A 4Pin(3+Tab) SC-73 T/R
Mfr.Part#:L401E3 Compare: Z0107MNT1G VS L401E3 Manufacturers:Littelfuse Category:TRIAC Diodes Description: Thyristor TRIAC 400V 20A 3Pin TO-92 Bulk Thyristor TRIAC 400V 20A 3Pin TO-92 Bulk

Ordering & Quality

Image Mfr. Part # Company Description Package PDF Qty Pricing (USD)
ADSP-BF542BBCZ-5A ADSP-BF542BBCZ-5A Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DSP 16BIT 533MHZ 400CSBGA Package:N/A
DataSheet
In Stock:On Order
Inquiry
Price:
26+: $844.22000
Inquiry
ADSP-TS101SAB1-000 ADSP-TS101SAB1-000 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC DSP CONTROLLER 6MBIT 625 BGA Package:625-BBGA
DataSheet
In Stock:On Order
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $302.76000
Inquiry
ADXL203CE-REEL ADXL203CE-REEL Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:ACCELEROMETER 1.7G ANALOG 8LCC Package:N/A
DataSheet
In Stock:On Order
Inquiry
Price:
3000+: $70035.00000
Inquiry
AD2S80AAD AD2S80AAD Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC R/D CONV 10/12/14/16B 40CDIP Package:40-CDIP (0.600", 15.24mm)
DataSheet
In Stock:3
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $253.27000
Inquiry
AD620BRZ-R7 AD620BRZ-R7 Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC INST AMP 1 CIRCUIT 8SOIC Package:8-SOIC (0.154", 3.90mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:3000
Inquiry
Price:
750+: $9.10600
Inquiry
AD7328BRUZ AD7328BRUZ Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC ADC 12BIT SAR 20TSSOP Package:20-TSSOP (0.173", 4.40mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:1165
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $13.99000
10+: $12.85400
25+: $12.32120
100+: $10.32300
250+: $9.65700
Inquiry
AD7490BRUZ-REEL AD7490BRUZ-REEL Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC ADC 12BIT SAR 28TSSOP Package:28-TSSOP (0.173", 4.40mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:2500
Inquiry
Price:
2500+: $9.19300
Inquiry
AD7708BRZ AD7708BRZ Company:Analog Devices Inc. Remark:IC ADC 16BIT SIGMA-DELTA 28SOIC Package:28-SOIC (0.295", 7.50mm Width)
DataSheet
In Stock:303
Inquiry
Price:
1+: $10.12000
10+: $9.13800
25+: $8.71240
100+: $7.22500
250+: $6.58752
500+: $6.16250
Inquiry

Related Articles

pinglun 15 comments

    • pingluntus
    • Jerseys NFL Wholesale on 2018/3/15 6:19:42

    These two objectives are the key ones to understand, though two others may also figure in.

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2018/3/16 15:25:48
        author

      Re:

    • pingluntus
    • Cheap China Jerseys on 2018/3/28 20:39:49

    This is an electronic blog that provide useful electronic knowledge or the latest semiconductor news electronic engineers.Anyone who wants to use this platform to do unrelated advertisements is not allowed.You contact the author's mailbox directly for any idea. Anyway,thanks for your pages to provide a lot of valuable electronic knowledge. I like it.

    • pingluntus
    • nika on 2018/3/29 10:39:55

    According to the working principle of capacitive sensor, there are three basic types of capacitive sensors, namely variable distance (d) type (also called variable gap type), variable area (A) and variable Permittivity (epsilon) type. The variable gap type can measure the displacement, the variable area type can measure the linear displacement, the angular displacement and the size, and the variable dielectric constant can measure the liquid level and the material thickness.

    • pingluntus
    • kamiatar on 2018/3/29 10:40:39

    The determinant of the capacitance is: C=εS/4πkd. The epsilon is a dielectric constant, the S is the right pair area of the capacitor plate, the D is the distance of the capacitor plate, and the K is the constant of the static electric power.

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2020/8/3 15:52:15
        author

      Re:

      There is an page named "Comprehensive Explanation of Capacitors" about capacitors, such as what is capacitor,its clasidfication? Features? Types? Function and more,the page is comprehensive. You may like it.


    • pingluntus
    • samitura on 2018/3/29 10:42:24

    Compared with the resistance and inductance sensors, the capacitive sensor has the following advantages: 1. Good temperature stability 2. The structure is simple and the adaptability is strong. 3. The dynamic response is good 4. The non-contact measurement can be realized with the average effect

      • pingluntu
      • author on 2018/3/29 10:45:17
        author

      Re:

      Hi~samitura

      U R Right,everything has its two sides.So~there are some shortcomings of capacitive sensors:

      1. High output impedance and poor load capacity

      2. Great influence of parasitic capacitance

      3. output characteristic nonlinearity


    • pingluntus
    • yakami on 2018/3/29 10:51:56

    Since the end of the 70s, with the development of integrated circuit technology, a capacitive sensor which has been encapsulated with micrometer has been developed. This new type of sensor can greatly reduce the influence of distributed capacitance and overcome its inherent disadvantages. The capacitive sensor is one of the most widely used and promising sensors.

    • pingluntus
    • sarah on 2018/4/9 18:02:40

    GOOD

    • pingluntus
    • Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale on 2018/4/24 21:51:34

    It’s not enough, but that’s all we can afford.

    • pingluntus
    • Wholesale Jerseys on 2018/5/6 18:46:11

    It is a doable thing if you just use common sense.

    • pingluntus
    • Leonie on 2018/6/11 22:52:09

    I enjoy the article

    • pingluntus
    • Sol on 2019/4/5 18:57:30

    It works very well for me

    • pingluntus
    • where can i buy cheap jerseys on 2019/4/24 12:31:09

    We're a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your site provided us with valuable info to work on cheap nfl jerseys china. You have done a formidable job and our whole community will be thankful to you.

    • pingluntus
    • nfl jersey shop wholesale on 2019/4/25 4:37:34

    I do agree with all the ideas you have presented in your postcheap jerseys. They are very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are too short for novices. Could you please extend them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

    • pingluntus
    • game worn nfl jerseys on 2019/4/25 15:59:49

    I am extremely impressed with your writing skills postwholesale nfl jerseys and also with the layout on your weblog with cheap nfl jerseys. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one today

    • pingluntus
    • Jocelyn on 2019/10/15 1:39:05

    Good post. I definitely love this site. Keep writing!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

 
 
   
 
code image
Rating: poor fair good very good excellent

# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z