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Battery Basic: Types of Electric Battery

Author: Apogeeweb
Date: 29 Sep 2019
lithium secondary battery

Ⅰ Abstract

Batteries have been widely used in life, from electric toys, dry batteries for remote control, car batteries, laptops batteries, and so on. Batteries also have been used in many other fields, such as electric tools, electric vehicles and bicycles, aerospace, solar and wind power generation and energy storage.


Ⅰ Abstract

Ⅱ Battery Terminology

2.1 Primary Batteries

2.2 Secondary Batteries

2.3 Differences between Primary Batteries and Secondary Batteries

2.4 Fuel Cell

2.5 Reserve Batteries

2.6 Standard Batteries

Ⅲ New Type of Batteries

Ⅳ Selecting the Right Batteries

Ⅴ Questions Related to Primary Batteries and Secondary Batteries


Battery Type Comparison: Lead Acid VS NiMH VS Li-Ion VS LiPo

Batteries have many different types, which can be divided into chemical cells, physical batteries and biological batteries, all of them are belonging to two major battery types:

  • Primary battery(non-rechargeable batteries)
  • Secondary battery(rechargeable batteries)


Ⅱ Battery Terminology

Depending on whether the battery can be reused, it can be divided into primary battery such as dry-cell batteries and secondary battery:

2.1 Primary Batteries

Primary batteries are batteries that cannot be recharged, which can produce current immediately on assembly, in addition, their electrochemical reactions are irreversible. Because of its characteristics, it is most commonly used in portable devices such as transistor radio, trackers, wrist watches, remote controls and children toys that have low current drain as an alternative power source.

primary battery structure

Primary batteries can be divided into a neutral zinc manganese battery, an alkaline zinc manganese battery, a zinc mercury battery, a magnesium manganese battery and a zinc silver battery, etc. Common types of primary batteries include carbon batteries (carbon-zinc batteries) and alkaline batteries. The positive of a general carbon battery (also known as a zinc-manganese battery) is a carbon rod, and the negative is zinc, which is a most common dry battery. It has the characteristics of low price, safe and reliable use. Compared with alkaline batteries, the essential difference is that the internal materials are different. Based on the consideration of environmental factors, it contains some heavy metals, so it must be recycled to avoid damage to the environment. Alkaline batteries are suitable for electrical appliances that require large discharges and long-term service. The internal resistance of the battery is low, so the current generated is larger than that of ordinary zinc-manganese batteries. The conductive is a copper rod and the outer shell is steel. It is safe and reliable and has low pollution. It is more suitable for electric toys, electric toothbrushes, wireless mouse and keyboards, electric shavers and so on. In addition, alkaline batteries have large capacity long service life, and low corrosion.

button cell

  •    Alkaline Batteries

Alkaline batteries use manganese dioxide as the positive electrode, zinc as the negative electrode, and potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte. They are also known as alkaline dry batteries, alkaline zinc-manganese batteries, and alkaline-manganese batteries, and are the best-performing varieties in the primary battery series. It is suitable for large discharge and long-term use. The internal resistance of the battery is low, so the current generated is larger than that of ordinary carbon batteries. Since these batteries do not contain mercury, they can be disposed of with household waste without the need for deliberate recycling. Its characteristics are superior to those of carbon batteries, and its electric capacity is large.

  • Advantages

Stable output, no leakage

Long service life

Small size, portable power source

  • Application

It is suitable for cameras, flash lights, razors, electric toys, CD players, high-power remote controls, wireless mice, keyboards, etc.


  •    Zinc-manganese battery

Primary batteries are still used in large quantities for a long time. There are both cylindrical and laminated structures. The invention is characterized by convenient use, low price and rich raw material source, and is suitable for automatic volume production. But the discharge voltage is not stable and the capacity is greatly influenced by the discharge rate, which is suitable for small and medium discharge rate and intermittent discharge. The new zinc-manganese dry battery has the advantages of high concentration of zinc chloride electrolyte, excellent manganese dioxide powder and paperboard pulp layer structure, and the capacity and the service life of the novel zinc-manganese dry battery are doubled. Because of these advantages, the sealing performance is improved.


  •    Alkaline zinc-manganese battery  

The electrolyte is made of mercury homogenized zinc powder, 35% potassium hydroxide solution and some sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Because the solidification point of potassium hydroxide solution is low and the internal resistance is small, the alkaline zinc-manganese dry battery can work at -20 ℃ and discharge at high current. Alkaline zinc-manganese dry battery can be charged and discharged more than 40 times, but deep discharge can not be carried out before charging (retaining 60% ~ 70% capacity), and it is necessary to strictly control the charging current and the voltage at the end of the charging period.


  •    Paste zinc-manganese battery

Consist of a zinc cylinder, an electric paste layer, a manganese dioxide positive electrode, a carbon rod, and a copper cap. The outermost layer is a zinc cylinder, which is both a negative electrode and container, and is gradually dissolved in the discharging process. And the center is a carbon rod with a current collecting effect, in addition, the carbon rod is a mixture of dark brown or black manganese dioxide powder and a conductive material (graphite or acetylene black), which is the positive pole of the battery, also called a carbon bag. In order to avoid water evaporation, the upper part of the dry cell is sealed with a paraffin or an asphalt.


  •    Paperboard zinc-manganese battery

It is improved on the basis of paste zinc-manganese dry cell. It is based on high quality kraft paper with thickness of 70μm to 100μm without metal impurities, coated with mixed paste, and then dried to make paperboard to replace the paste electrolyte layer in paste zinc-manganese dry battery. The actual discharge capacity of paper zinc-manganese dry battery is 2 times higher than that of ordinary paste zinc-manganese dry battery.


  •    Injection-mode zinc-manganese battery

It consists of several compact flat single batteries stacked together. Each single cell consists of a plastic shell, zinc skin, conductive film, diaphragm paper, and carbon. Diaphragm paper is a kind of pulp paper with starch layer on the surface of electrolyte, which is affixed to zinc skin; the carbon is on the diaphragm paper. Diaphragm paper, like the paste layer of paste dry battery, plays the role of isolating zinc skin negative electrode and carbon positive electrode. Laminated zinc-manganese dry battery deals with the trouble of series combination of cylindrical paste dry battery. Its structure is compact, and the volume is small, but its storage life is short and the internal resistance is large.



2.2 Secondary Batteries

Secondary batteries, also known as rechargeable batteries or accumulators, refer to batteries that can be activated by charging and recharging after the battery is discharged. Based on the reversibility of the chemical reaction, a new battery can be formed, that is, after a chemical reaction is converted into electrical energy, the chemical system can be repaired with electrical energy, and then converted into electrical energy using the chemical reaction again, so it is called a secondary battery. The main rechargeable batteries on the market are nickel metal hydride batteries, nickel cadmium batteries, lead acid batteries, Li-ion batteries, polymer lithium-ion batteries, etc. The most common secondary battery is a lead storage battery, which is composed of two sets of grid-shaped plates alternately arranged, the positive plate is covered with PbO2, the negative plate is covered with Pb, and the electrolyte is H2SO4 solution. The secondary batteries mainly include nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, lead acid, alkaline manganese, and lead storage batteries. And the first three are often used in electronic equipment.

The self-discharge of the secondary battery is called charge retention capacity, which refers to the retention capacity of the battery's stored electricity under certain environmental conditions in the open circuit state. Generally speaking, self-discharge is mainly affected by the manufacturing process, materials, and storage conditions. It is one of the main parameters to measure battery performance. In addition, the lower the storage temperature of the battery, the lower the self-discharge rate, but there is a necessary should be noted that too low or too high temperature may cause damage to the battery.

battery image

  •    Lithium-ion batteries

Lithium-ion batteries generally use lithium alloy metal oxide as the positive electrode material, graphite as the negative electrode material, and is a non-aqueous electrolyte battery. They are applied in different portable appliances including mobile phones, smart devices and several other battery appliances used by people. It mainly depends on the movement of lithium ions between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. In the process of charging and discharging, Li + intercalates and deintercalates between the two electrodes: when charging, Li + deintercalates from the positive electrode, intercalates into the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state; the opposite occurs during discharge.

Lithium-ion battery is a kind of rechargeable battery, which shall not be higher than the maximum charging voltage when charging, and shall not be lower than the minimum working voltage when discharging. Regardless of the time, the lithium-ion battery must be kept above the minimum operating voltage. Over-discharge or self-discharge reactions at low voltage will cause the lithium ion active material to decompose and destroy, which may be irreversible. In addition, any form of overcharging of lithium ion batteries will cause serious damage to the battery performance, and even explosion.

  • Advantages

High C-rating

Long cycle life

High cell voltage

High power density

Very light in weight

Lower self discharge

Sound temporature performance

  • Disadvantages

High cost

Protection circuit is needed.

Overcharge and overdischarge issue

  • Application

Mainly used in mobile phones, computers, digital cameras, electric toys, electric vehicles, etc.


  •    Lead accumulators

It is the most commonly used type. Its plate is a grid made of lead alloy and the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid. Both plates are covered with lead sulfate. However, after charging, lead sulfate on the positive plate is converted into lead dioxide, and lead sulfate at the negative electrode is converted into metal lead. When discharge, there is a opposite chemical reaction.

The EMF of lead accumulator is about 2V, and they has storage battery of 6V or 12V in series. The concentration of sulfuric acid decreases when the battery is discharged. The method of measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte can be used to determine whether the battery needs to be charged or whether the charging process can stop.

The advantage of lead storage battery is that the EMF is relatively stable when discharging, and the disadvantage is that the specific energy(energy stored per unit weight) is small. And this type battery is harmful to the environment.

It is composed of positive plate group, negative plate group, electrolyte and container. The charged positive plate is brown lead dioxide (PbO2), and the negative plate is gray fluffy lead (Pb). When the electrode plate is placed in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aqueous solution with the concentration of 27% ~ 37%, the lead and sulfuric acid react with each other, and the divalent lead positive ion (Pb2) is transferred to the electrolyte, leaving two electrons (2e -) on the negative plate. Due to the gravity of positive and negative charges, lead positive ions gather around the negative plate, which is infiltrated by a small amount of lead dioxide (PbO2) under the action of water molecules in the electrolyte. The electrolyte, in which the bivalent oxygen ions are hydrated to turn the lead dioxide molecule into the lead hydroxide[Pb(OH4]), ionized and unstable substance. Lead hydroxide consists of 4-valent lead positive ions(Pb4+)and 4 hydroxides[4(OH)], in addition, 4-valent Pb4+ is left on the positive plate with positive charge. Because the negative electrode plate is negatively charged, a certain potential difference is generated between the two poles, which is the EMF of the battery. When the external circuit is connected, the current flows from the positive electrode to the negative electrode.

TL12450 battery

In the process of discharge, the electrons on the negative plate continue to flow through the external circuit to the positive plate. In the electrolyte, hydrogen positive ion (H) and sulfate anion (SO42-) are ionized by sulfuric acid molecule. Under the action of ion electric field force, the two ions move to positive and negative electrode respectively. When the sulfate negative ion reaches the negative plate, it binds to lead positive ion to form lead sulfate (PbSO4). On the positive plate, due to the inflow of electrons from the external circuit, and synthesized with the 4 valence lead positive ion (Pb4) to make the 2 valence lead positive ion (Pb2), and Pb2 immediately combined with the sulfate anion near the positive plate to form lead sulfate attached to the positive electrode.

With the discharge of the battery, the positive and negative plates are vulcanized, and the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte decreases gradually, while the moisture increases, which leads to the decrease of the specific gravity of the electrolyte. Under normal operation, lead battery should not discharge too much, otherwise it will make the fine lead sulfate crystal mixed with active material form a larger size, which not only increases the resistance of the plate, but also is difficult to restore it during charging, affecting the capacity and life of the storage batteries.

Lead battery has the advantages of stable working voltage, wide range of operating temperature and current, re-use, good storage performance (especially suitable for dry charge storage), and low cost, so it is widely used. In addition, the performance of lead battery can be improved by using new lead alloy. If lead-calcium alloy is used as grid, the minimum floating charge current of lead-calcium battery can be guaranteed, the amount of water added can be reduced and its service life can be prolonged, and the self-discharge and sealing needs can be met by using lead-lithium alloy casting positive grid. Also acid-proof, explosion-proof and hydrogen-free lead batteries should be developed.


  •    Lead-crystal storage batteries

The application of the lead-crystal storage battery is a proprietary technology, and the adopted high-conductivity silicate electrolyte is a complex modification of the traditional lead-acid battery electrolyte, and the acid-free internal formation process is the innovation of the shaping process. No pollution problem exists in the production, the use and the waste generation, and the product is more satisfied with the requirements of environmental protection, and the lead-crystal storage battery uses the silicate to replace the sulfuric acid solution as the electrolyte, thereby overcoming the short service life of the lead-acid battery, and the disadvantage that can not be charged and discharged by the large current, which is more in line with the requirements of the power battery, therefore, the lead-crystal cell will also have a great driving effect on the power battery field.

Lead crystal battery has the following advantages compared with lead acid battery:


1) Long life cycle

Generally, the charge and discharge of lead-acid battery is about 350 times, while the cycle life of lead-acid battery is more than 700 times under the premise of rated capacity discharge of 60%, which is twice the life of lead-acid battery.


2) Good discharging capability

The special process makes the lead crystal battery have the characteristic of high-rate discharge. Generally, the discharge rate of lead acid battery is only 3C, and the maximum discharge rate of lead crystal battery can reach 10C.


3) Deep discharge

The lead-crystal cell can be deeply discharged to 0V, and the continuous charging can restore all the rated capacity, which is an unattainable state with respect to a lead-acid battery.


4) Good withstand low temperature capability

The temperature adaptation range of lead crystal battery is relatively wide, from -20°C to 50°C, especially in the case of -20°C, the discharge energy can reach 87%.


5) Eco-friendly

The new materials, new processes and new formulas used in lead crystal batteries do not exist volatile harmful substances such as acid fog, and will not cause pollution to land, rivers and so on.


  •    Lead-Acid Batteries (VRLA)

A lead-acid battery is a battery whose electrodes are mainly made of lead and its oxide, and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution. When discharging, the main part of the positive electrode is lead dioxide, and the negative electrode is lead; When charging, the main parts of the positive and negative electrodes are lead sulfate.

  • Advantages


Long cycle life

No memory effect

Easy maintenance

Good high-rate discharge capacity

Well temperature performance

  • Disadvantages


Lead pollution

Low power density

  • Application

At present, it is mainly used for low-speed electric vehicles and robots.


  •    Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH)

Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery

The nickel-metal hydride battery is a kind of storage battery with good performance. Ni-MH batteries are divided into high-voltage Ni-MH batteries and low-voltage Ni-MH batteries. The positive electrode active material of Ni-MH battery is NiOH2 , and the negative electrode active material is metal hydride, also called hydrogen storage alloy. The electrolyte is 6mol / L potassium hydroxide solution.

The process methods for the active material to form the electrode pole piece mainly include sintering type, pulping type, nickel foam type, nickel fiber type and infiltration type. The batteries are produced according to different requirements. Most of the civil batteries such as communication adopt the pulping-type negative electrode and the nickel foam-type positive electrode to make the battery.

  • Advantages

Small pollution

Stable operation

No memory effect

High power density

Fully sealed, less maintenance

Excellent low temperature performance 

  • Disadvantages

High self-discharge

Low working voltage

Expensive than Ni-Cad batteries

  • Application

Mainly used in portable electronic instruments, meters, mobile communication equipment, cameras, notebook computers and various audio-visual equipment.


  •    Nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd)

Nickel-cadmium battery

The positive electrode of nickel cadmium battery is nickel hydroxide, the negative electrode is cadmium, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide solution. Their internal resistance is very small, and they can be charged quickly, in addition, they can provide a large current to the load, and the voltage change during discharge is very small.

  • Advantages

Long cycle life

Economy and durability

Variety of shapes and sizes

Can be used in all environments 

  • Disadvantages

Small capacity

Short service life

Metal contamination

Recharge frequently

Have memory effect

  • Application

Mainly used in electric vehicles and portable equipment.


  •    Silver-zinc storage batteries

The positive electrode is silver oxide, the negative electrode is zinc, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide solution. Silver-zinc battery has the advantages of high specific energy, high current discharge, shock resistance, and is used as power supply for space navigation, artificial satellite, rocket and so on. The frequency of charge and discharge can reach about 100 ~ 150 times. Its disadvantage is that the price is expensive and the service life is short.


2.3 Differences between Primary Batteries and Secondary Batteries

1) The primary battery can be discharged once only, and the secondary battery can be used repeatedly and recharged.

2) The electrode volume and structure of the secondary battery change inversely during discharge, so these changes must be adjusted in the design, while the interior of the primary battery is much simpler because it does not need to adjust these reversible changes.

3) The mass specific capacity and volume specific capacity of the primary battery are larger than those of the general rechargeable battery, but the internal resistance (0.2 ≤ 0.5 Ω) is much larger than that of the secondary battery, so the load capacity is lower.

4) The self-discharge of the primary battery is smaller than the secondary battery.

The common primary battery is a zinc-manganese dry battery, which has a low cost and is not reusable.

Common secondary batteries include nickel-hydrogen batteries commonly used in electronic watches and lead-acid batteries commonly used in automotive batteries, as well as lithium-ion batteries commonly used in electric tools and electric aircraft, as well as in electric vehicles and bicycles.


2.4 Fuel Cell

A device that converts the chemical energy released by a fuel into electrical energy during combustion. Unlike the battery, it can continuously replenish the fuel and oxidant to the two electrode regions from the outside without charging. Fuel cell consists of four parts: fuel (such as hydrogen, methane, etc.), oxidant (such as oxygen and air, etc.), electrode and electrolyte. The electrode has catalytic property and porous structure to ensure a large active area. When working, the fuel is inserted into the negative electrode and the oxidant is introduced into the positive electrode. Each of them carries on the electrochemical reaction under the catalysis of the electrode to obtain the electric energy.

Fuel cell converts the energy released by combustion reaction directly into electric energy, so its energy utilization is high, which is about twice the efficiency of heat engine. 


  •  Advantages

Light weight

No noise, little pollution

Long life

High output power per unit weight

Therefore, it has been used in space navigation and has shown a wide range of applications in military and civil fields.


2.5 Reserve Batteries

There are two activation methods, one is to store the electrolyte separately from the electrode, and the electrolyte is injected into the battery pack before use, such as magnesium seawater battery, reserve chromic acid battery and zinc-silver battery. The other is to use molten salt electrolyte, which is not conductive at room temperature. The electrolyte is rapidly melted and activated by igniting heating agent before use, which is called thermal cell. The battery can use calcium, magnesium or lithium alloy as negative electrode, low eutectic melt of KCl and LiCl as electrolyte, CaCrO4,PbSO4 or V2O5 as positive electrode, zirconium powder or iron powder as heating agent. Full sealing structure can be stored for a long term (more than 10 years). Thus it is suitable for special purposes.


2.6 Standard Batteries

The most famous is Weston standard battery, which can be divided into saturated type and non-saturated type. The standard EMF is 1.01864V (20 ℃). The voltage temperature coefficient of the non-saturated type is about 1/4 of that of the saturated type.

battery image

Ⅲ New Type of Batteries

There are many kinds of batteries, and the common batteries are dry batteries, storage batteries, and micro-batteries. In addition, there are also fuel cells, and other energy conversion batteries, such as solar cells, thermoelectric cells, nuclear batteries, and so on.


  •    Solar cell

A device that converts the energy of sunlight into electricity. When the sun is irradiated, the terminal voltage is generated and the current is obtained, which is used in artificial satellites. The solar cells in spaceships are made of semiconductors (usually silicon photocells). When the sun shines on the surface of the solar cell, the potential difference is formed on both sides of the semiconductor PN junction. The efficiency is more than 10%, and the typical output power is 5 ~10 MW per square centimeter (junction area).


  •    Nuclear battery

A device that converts nuclear energy directly into electric energy (nuclear power generation devices use nuclear fission energy to heat steam to drive generators to generate electricity, and nuclear energy released in the process of nuclear fission cannot be directly converted into electric energy). Conventional nuclear batteries include radioactive sources β-rays (high-speed electron streams), collectors that collect these electrons, and insulators through which electrons pass from radioactive sources to collectors. One end of the radioactive source becomes a positive electrode because of the loss of negative electricity, and one end of the collector gets negative electricity to become a negative pole. And a potential difference is formed between the radioactive source and the electrodes at both ends of the collector. This kind of nuclear battery can produce high voltage, but the current is very small. It is used in man-made satellites and exploration spacecraft and can be used for a long time.


  •    Nano battery

Nanobatteries are made of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials have special microstructure and physicochemical properties, such as quantum size effect, surface effect and tunnel quantum effect, etc.). Mainly used in electric vehicles, electric motorcycles, electric booster cars. The battery can be rechargeable for 1000 times, and it takes only about 20 minutes to charge fully. And the Ni-H batteries take about 6 hours and 8 hours to reach 300 km.


  •    Metal-air battery

A high energy battery in which oxygen is used as a positive active substance and metal as a negative active substance. The metals used are generally magnesium, aluminum, zinc, cadmium, iron and so on, and electrolytes are aqueous solutions.

Metal-air batteries have higher specific energy because air is not calculated within the weight of the battery. The specific energy of zinc air battery is the highest among the current batteries, which has reached 400Wh/kg. It is a kind of high performance medium power battery, and it is developing in the direction of high power battery. At present, the metal-air battery is mainly primary battery, and the secondary metal-air battery is a mechanical recharging battery with metal electrode replacement. Because metal-air batteries have to supply air continuously when they work, they cannot work in sealed or air-scarce environments. In addition, the electrolyte solution in the battery is easily affected by air humidity and the performance of the battery is degraded, in addition, the oxygen in the air will pass through the air electrode and spread to the metal electrode, resulting in self-discharge caused by corrosion of the battery.


  •    Thermopiles

Two metals are connected into a closed circuit and maintain different temperatures at the two joints, generating EMF, which is a thermoelectromotive force. This called the Seebeck effect, and the device based on is called thermocouple. Metal thermocouple is small and is often used to measure the temperature difference. However, when the thermocouple is connected into thermopile, it can also be used as a low power supply. The thermoelectric effect of thermopiles made of semiconductor material is strong.



Ⅳ Selecting the Right Batteries

Battery life affects the successful deployment of devices that require long battery life and even though several power management techniques are being adopted to make the battery last longer, a compatible battery must still be selected to achieve the desired outcome.

The following are some factors to consider when selecting the right type of battery for your applications.


Batteries with unqualified safety performance are unacceptable, among which explosion and leakage are the most influential.

Rated Capacity

It is closely related to discharge current, discharge termination voltage, discharge temperature, actual capacity, power density, etc.

Charge Retention

It refers to the capacity of maintaining electricity under certain environmental conditions, which is affected by many factors such as battery materials, manufacturing process, storage and use conditions.

Service Life

Long life and well durability


The cost of the battery should be commensurate with its performance.



1. What are secondary batteries give an example?
Examples of secondary batteries include nickel-cadmium (NiCd), lead acid, and lithium ion batteries. Fuel cells are similar to batteries in that they generate an electrical current, but require continuous addition of fuel and oxidizer.


2. What are the difference between primary and secondary battery?
Battery or cells are referred to as the parallel combination of electrochemical cells. The major difference between a primary cell and the secondary cell is that primary cells are the ones that cannot be charged but secondary cells are the ones that are rechargeable.


3. Where are primary batteries used?
Primary batteries are single-use galvanic cells that store electricity for convenient usage, usually showing a good shelf life. Examples are zinc–carbon (Leclanché) cells, alkaline zinc–manganese dioxide cells, and metal–air-depolarized batteries. Primary lithium cells are now available.


4. Which are primary batteries?
Types of primary cells
Alkaline battery (zinc manganese oxide, carbon)
Aluminium–air battery
Atomic battery, Betavoltaics, Optoelectric nuclear battery, Nuclear micro-battery
Bunsen cell
Chromic acid cell (Poggendorff cell)
Clark cell
Daniell cell
Dry cell


5. What are the types of secondary battery?
Types of secondary cells
Aluminium-ion battery
Carbon battery
Single carbon battery
Dual carbon battery
Flow battery
Vanadium redox battery
Lead–acid battery
Deep cycle battery
Glass battery
Lithium-ion battery
Lithium ion lithium cobalt oxide battery (ICR)
Magnesium-ion battery
Metal–air electrochemical cells
Lithium air battery

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pinglun 1 comment

    • pingluntus
    • Hans on 2019/12/20 17:20:41

    All you need is a DC/DC boost converter to charge the batteries in situ and keep the 3 separate batteries as backup or keep those topped up and switch them over, as and when. You could use a converter with a transistor switched via an oscillator. There are many ways of doing this, including charging each individual battery through an automatic Voltage controlled switch from the vehicle charging system.

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