 Home Capacitors  Nov 22 2018

# Working Principle and Function of Capacitor

## Introduction

In electronic circuits, capacitors are used to block DC through AC, as well as to store and discharge charge to act as a filter to smooth out the output ripple signal.

Small-capacity capacitors are commonly used in high-frequency circuits such as radios, transmitters, and oscillators. Large-capacity capacitors are often used for filtering and storing charge. There is also a feature, generally more than 1μF capacitors are electrolytic capacitors, and capacitors below 1μF are ceramic capacitors, of course, there are other, such as monolithic capacitors, polyester capacitors, small-capacity mica capacitors. The electrolytic capacitor has an aluminum shell filled with electrolyte and leads two electrodes as positive (+) and negative (-) poles. Unlike other capacitors, their polarity in the circuit cannot be connected incorrectly, while other capacitors have no polarity.

 Article Core Capacitor Purpose Introduce working principle and function of capacitor Application Power supply circuit, signal circuit Keywords Capacitor

## Definition of Capacitance

Capacitance, also known as "capacity", refers to the amount of charge stored at a given potential difference, denoted as C, and the international unit is Farad (F). Generally speaking, the electric charge moves in the electric field. When there is a medium between the conductors, the electric charge is hindered and the electric charge accumulates on the conductor, causing the accumulated storage of the electric charge. The stored electric charge amount is called a capacitance. Since capacitors are one of the most widely used electronic components in electronic devices, they are widely used in blocking, coupling, bypassing, filtering, tuning loops, energy conversion, control circuits and so on. Figure1. Definiton of Capacitor

## Role of Capacitance

As one of the passive components, capacitors have the following functions:

1. It is applied to the power supply circuit to realize the functions of bypass, decoupling, filtering and energy storage. The following categories are described in detail:

1）Bypass

The bypass capacitor is an energy storage device that supplies energy to the local device, which equalizes the output of the regulator and reduces the load requirements. Like a small rechargeable battery, the bypass capacitor can be charged and discharged to the device. To minimize impedance, the bypass capacitor should be as close as possible to the power supply and ground pins of the load device. This can well prevent ground potential elevation and noise caused by excessive input values. The ground bounce is the voltage drop when the ground connection is passed through a large current glitch.

2）Decoupling

Decoupling, also known as defamatory. From the circuit, it can always be distinguished as the source of the driving and the load of being driven. If the load capacitance is relatively large, the drive circuit must charge and discharge the capacitor to complete the signal transition. When the rising edge is steep, the current is relatively large, so that the driven current will absorb a large supply current. Because of the inductance in the circuit, the resistance (especially the inductance on the chip pin, will produce a rebound), this current is actually a kind of noise compared to the normal situation, which will affect the normal operation of the previous stage, which is called "coupling".

The decoupling capacitor acts as a "battery" to satisfy the change of the drive circuit current and avoid mutual coupling interference between them. Combining bypass and decoupling capacitors will be easier to understand. The bypass capacitor is actually decoupled, except that the bypass capacitor generally refers to the high-frequency bypass, which is a low-impedance venting path for high-frequency switching noise. The high-frequency bypass capacitor is generally small, and according to the resonant frequency, the capacitance is generally 0.1 and 0.01 uF , a while the capacitance of decoupling capacitors is generally larger,  which may be 10μF or more, depending on the distributed parameters in the circuit and the variation of the driving current.

Bypass is to filter the interference in the input signal, while decoupling is to filter the interference of the output signal to prevent the interference signal from returning to the power supply. This should be their essential difference. Figure2. The Two Aspects of Decoupling

3）Filtering

Theoretically (that is, assuming the capacitor is a pure capacitor), the larger the capacitance, the smaller the impedance and the higher the frequency of passing. However, the capacitance of more than 1μF is mostly an electrolytic capacitor, which has a large inductance component, so the impedance will increase after the frequency is high. Sometimes you will see a small capacitor with a larger capacitance and a small capacitor. At this time, the large capacitor passes through the low frequency and the small capacitor passes through the high frequency. The function of the capacitor is to pass the high impedance and low frequency. The larger the capacitance, the easier the low frequency passes, and the higher the capacitance, the easier it is to pass. Specifically used in filtering, large capacitor (1000μF) filter low frequency, small capacitor (20pF) filter high frequency. Some netizens have compared the filter capacitor to a "water pond". Since the voltage across the capacitor does not change, it can be seen that the higher the signal frequency, the greater the attenuation. It can be said that the capacitor is like a pond, and the water quantity will not be changed due to the addition or evaporation of a few drops of water. It converts the change in voltage into a change in current. The higher the frequency, the larger the peak current, which buffers the voltage. Filtering is the process of charging and discharging.

4）Energy Storage

The energy storage capacitor collects charge through the rectifier and transfers the stored energy through the converter lead to the output of the power supply. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (such as EPCOS B43504 or B43505) with a voltage rating of 40 to 450 VDC and a capacitance between 220 and 150 000 μF are more commonly used. Depending on the power requirements, the devices are sometimes used in series, in parallel, or a combination thereof. For power supplies with power levels greater than 10 kW, bulky screw-type terminal capacitors are typically used.

2. Applied to the signal circuit, it mainly completes the role of coupling, oscillation / synchronization and time constant: Figure3. Coupling Capacitor

1) Coupling

For example, the emitter of a transistor amplifier has a self-biasing resistor, which at the same time causes the voltage drop of the signal to be fed back to the input to form an input-output signal coupling. This resistor is the component that produces the coupling. Parallel connection of a capacitor, because the capacitor of the appropriate capacity has a small impedance to the AC signal, thus reducing the coupling effect caused by the resistor, so the capacitor is called a decoupling capacitor.

2) Oscillation / Synchronization

The load capacitance of RC, LC oscillator and crystal belongs to this category.

3) Time Constant

This is the common integration circuit of R and C connected in series. When the input signal voltage is applied to the input, the voltage across the capacitor (C) gradually rises. The charging current decreases as the voltage rises. The characteristics of the current through the resistor (R) and capacitor (C) are described by the following formula:

i = (V / R)e - (t / CR)

## Capacitor Selection

In general, how should we choose a suitable capacitor for our circuit? I think it should be based on the following considerations:

1. Electrostatic capacity;

2, rated pressure;

3. Tolerance error;

4. The amount of capacitance change under DC bias;

5, noise level;

6, the type of capacitor;

7, the specifications of the capacitor.

So, is there a shortcut to find? In fact, as the peripheral components of the device, almost every device's Datasheet or Solutions clearly specify the selection parameters of the peripheral components, that is, the basic device selection requirements can be obtained, and then further refined. It. In fact, when choosing a capacitor, it is not only about the capacity and the package. It depends on the environment in which the product is used. Special circuits must use special capacitors.

## Classification According to the Dielectric Constant of the Dielectric

The Dielectric Constant Directly Affects the Stability of the Circuit.

1. NP0 or CH (K < 150): the electrical performance is the most stable, basically does not change with the change of temperature, voltage and time. It is suitable for high-frequency circuits with high stability requirements. In view of the small K value, it is difficult to have a large capacity capacitor in the 0402, 0603, and 0805 packages. Such as 0603 is generally the largest 10nF or less.

2. X7R or YB (2000 < K < 4000): the electrical performance is relatively stable, and the change in performance is not significant when temperature, voltage, and time change (?C < ±10%). Suitable for DC blocking, coupling, bypass and full frequency identification circuits that do not require high capacity stability.

3. Y5V or YF (K > 15000): the capacity stability is worse than X7R (?C < +20% ~ -80%). The capacity and loss are sensitive to the test conditions such as temperature and voltage, but the K value is larger. Therefore, it is suitable for some occasions with high capacitance requirements.

## Types of Capacitors

There are many types and types of capacitors. Based on the material properties of capacitors, they can be divided into the following categories:

1. Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor

The capacitance range is from 0.1μF to 22000μF. It is the best choice for high ripple current, long life and large capacity. It is widely used in power supply filtering and decoupling.

2. Film Capacitor

Capacitance range is 0.1pF~10uF. It has small tolerance, high capacity stability and very low piezoelectric effect. Therefore, it is the first choice of X, Y safe capacitor and EMI/EMC.

3. Tantalum Capacitor

Capacitance capacities range from 2.2μF to 560μF, low equivalent series resistance (ESR), and low equivalent series power (ESL). Pulsating absorption, transient response and noise suppression are superior to aluminum electrolytic capacitors, making them ideal for highly stable power supplies.

4. Ceramic Capacitor

Capacitance ranges from 0.5pF to 100uF. The unique crystallization of materials and thin film technology caters to the design concept of "lighter, thinner and more energy-saving".

5. Super Capacitor

Capacitance capacity ranges from 0.022F to 70F, which is extremely high capacitance, so it is also called "gold capacitor" or "farad capacitor". The main features are: high capacitance, good charge / discharge characteristics, suitable for electrical energy storage and power backup. The disadvantage is that the withstand voltage is low and the operating temperature range is narrow. Figure4. Capacitors

6. Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC)

For capacitors, miniaturization and high capacity are eternal trends. Among them, the number of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is the fastest growing. Multi-layer ceramic capacitors are widely used in portable products, but in recent years, technological advances in digital products have placed new demands on them. For example, mobile phones require higher transmission rates and higher performance; baseband processors require high speed and low voltage; LCD modules require low thickness (0.5mm) and large capacitance. The harshness of the automotive environment has special requirements for multilayer ceramic capacitors: first, high temperature resistance, multilayer ceramic capacitors placed in it must meet the operating temperature of 150 ° C; secondly, short circuit failure protection design is required on the battery circuit. . That is to say, miniaturization, high speed and high performance, high temperature resistance and high reliability have become key characteristics of ceramic capacitors. The capacity of the ceramic capacitor varies with the DC bias voltage. The DC bias voltage reduces the dielectric constant, so it is necessary to reduce the dependence of the dielectric constant on the voltage from the material side and optimize the DC bias voltage characteristics.

The most common application is the X7R (X5R) multilayer ceramic capacitor, whose capacity is mainly concentrated above 1000pF. The main performance index of this type of capacitor is equivalent series resistance (ESR), decoupling and filtering at high ripple current. The low-power performance of the low-frequency signal coupling circuit is outstanding. Another type of multilayer ceramic capacitor is C0G, which has a capacity of less than 1000pF. The main performance index of this type of capacitor is the loss tangent tgδ(DF). The traditional precious metal electrode (NME) has a DF value range of (2.0 to 8.0) × 10-4, while the technically innovative base metal electrode (BME) has a DF value of (1.0 to 2.5) × 10-4. , about 31 to 50% of the former. This type of product has significant low-power characteristics in GSM, CDMA, cordless phones, Bluetooth, and GPS systems carrying T/R module circuits. More used in various high frequency circuits, such as oscillator / synchronizer, timer circuit and so on. Figure5. Types of Capacitors

7. Tantalum Capacitors Replace the Misunderstanding of Electrolytic Capacitors

The general view is that tantalum capacitors perform better than aluminum capacitors because the tantalum capacitor is a tantalum pentoxide produced by anodization. Its dielectric capacity (usually expressed as ε) is higher than that of aluminum capacitors.

Therefore, in the case of the same capacity, the volume of the tantalum capacitor can be made smaller than that of the aluminum capacitor. (The capacitance of the electrolytic capacitor depends on the dielectric capacity and volume of the medium. In the case of a certain capacity, the higher the dielectric capacity, the smaller the volume can be made. Otherwise, the volume needs to be made larger) The nature of tantalum is relatively stable, so tantalum capacitor performance is generally considered to be better than aluminum capacitors.

However, this method of judging the performance of the capacitor by the anode is outdated. The key to determining the performance of the electrolytic capacitor is not the anode but the electrolyte, that is, the cathode. Because different cathodes and different anodes can be combined into different types of electrolytic capacitors, their performance is also very different. The capacitance of the same anode can vary greatly depending on the electrolyte. In general, the effect of the anode on the performance of the capacitor is much smaller than that of the cathode. Another view is that tantalum capacitors perform better than aluminum capacitors, mainly because they are significantly better than aluminum electrolyte capacitors after adding manganese dioxide cathode. If the cathode of the aluminum electrolyte capacitor is replaced with manganese dioxide, its performance can actually be improved. To be sure, ESR is one of the main parameters for measuring a capacitor's characteristics. However, if you choose a capacitor, you should avoid the ESR as low as possible, and the higher the quality, the better. To measure a product, we must consider it in all directions and from multiple angles. We must not exaggerate the role of capacitors intentionally or unintentionally.

## Application Notes

• ### Ordinary Electrolytic Capacitor

The structure of a common electrolytic capacitor is an anode and a cathode and an electrolyte, the anode is passivated aluminum, and the cathode is pure aluminum, so the key is at the anode and the electrolyte. The quality of the anode is related to the problem of resistance to piezoelectric coefficient. In general, the ESR of tantalum electrolytic capacitors is much smaller than that of aluminum electrolytic capacitors of the same capacity and with high voltage resistance, and the high frequency performance is better. If that capacitor is used in a filter circuit (such as a 50 Hz bandpass filter), pay attention to the effect of the change in capacity on the filter performance.

• ### Application of Bypass Capacitor

In an embedded design, the MCU is required to enter a low-power idle/sleep mode from a power-intensive, processing-intensive mode of operation. These conversions can easily cause a sharp increase in line loss, which is very high, reaching 20A/ms or even faster. Bypass capacitors are often used to address load changes caused by high-speed devices in the system to ensure power supply output stability and good transient response. The bypass capacitor is an energy storage device that supplies energy to the local device, which equalizes the output of the regulator and reduces the load requirements. Like a small rechargeable battery, the bypass capacitor can be charged and discharged to the device. To minimize impedance, the bypass capacitor should be as close as possible to the power supply and ground pins of the load device. This can well prevent ground potential elevation and noise caused by excessive input values. The ground bounce is the voltage drop when the ground connection is passed through a large current glitch. It should be understood that both large and small capacity bypass capacitors may be necessary, and some even have multiple ceramic and tantalum capacitors. Such a combination can solve the problem that the above load current may be caused by a step change, and also provide sufficient decoupling to suppress voltage and current glitch. In the case of very severe load changes, three or more capacitors of different capacities are required to ensure sufficient current before the regulator is regulated. The fast transient process is suppressed by high-frequency small-capacity capacitors. The medium-speed transient process is suppressed by the low-frequency large-capacity, and the rest is left to the regulator.

It should also be remembered that the regulator also requires the capacitor to be as close as possible to the voltage output.

• ### Equivalent Series Resistance ESR of Capacitor

The general view is that a relatively large external capacitor with a small equivalent series resistance (ESR) can well absorb the peak (ripple) current during fast switching. However, sometimes such a choice is liable to cause instability of the regulator (especially the linear regulator LDO), so the capacitance of the small-capacity and large-capacity capacitors must be properly selected. Always remember that a voltage regulator is an amplifier that can appear in a variety of situations that an amplifier can appear.

Since the response speed of the DC/DC converter is relatively slow, the output decoupling capacitor dominates the initial stage of the load step, so an extra large capacity capacitor is needed to slow down the fast conversion relative to the DC/DC converter. Use high frequency capacitors to slow down the fast transition relative to large capacitors. In general, the equivalent series resistance of bulk capacitors should be chosen to be appropriate so that the peaks and spurs of the output voltage are within the device's Dasheet specifications. Figure6. What is Equivalent Series Resistance

In high-frequency conversion, small-capacitance capacitors are well-suited to the requirements of 0.01μF to 0.1μF. Surface-mount ceramic capacitors or multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) have smaller ESR. In addition, under these values, their volume and BOM cost are reasonable. If the local low frequency decoupling is insufficient, the input voltage will be lowered when switching from low frequency to high frequency. The voltage drop process can last for a few milliseconds, depending on the regulator's gain adjustment and the time it takes to supply a large load current. It is of course more cost-effective to use ESR with a larger capacitor in parallel than a single capacitor that is just as low as ESR. However, this requires you to find a trade-off between PCB area, device count and cost.

## Electrical Parameters of Electrolytic Capacitors

The electrolytic capacitor here mainly refers to the aluminum electrolytic capacitor, and its basic electrical parameters include the following five points:

• ### Capacitance Value

The capacitance of an electrolytic capacitor depends on the impedance exhibited when operating at an alternating voltage. Therefore, the capacitance value, that is, the value of the AC capacitor, varies with the operating frequency, voltage, and measurement method. In the standard JISC 5102, the capacitance of the aluminum electrolytic capacitor is measured under the conditions of a frequency of 120 Hz, a maximum AC voltage of 0.5 Vrms, and a DC bias voltage of 1.5 to 2.0 V. It can be asserted that the capacity of the aluminum electrolytic capacitor decreases as the frequency increases.

• ### Loss Tangent Tan δ

In the equivalent circuit of the capacitor, the ratio of the series equivalent resistance ESR to the capacitive reactance 1/ωC is called Tan δ, where ESR is the value calculated at 120 Hz. Obviously, Tan δ becomes larger as the measurement frequency increases, and increases as the measurement temperature decreases.

• ### Impedance Z

At a specific frequency, the resistance that blocks the passage of the alternating current is the so-called impedance (Z). It is closely related to the capacitance value and inductance value in the capacitor equivalent circuit, and is also related to ESR.

Z = √ [ESR2 + (XL - XC)2 ]
In the formula，XC = 1 / ωC = 1 / 2πfC
XL = ωL = 2πfL

The capacitive reactance (XC) of the capacitor gradually decreases with increasing frequency in the low frequency range, and the frequency continues to increase until the reactance (XL) falls to the ESR value in the intermediate frequency range. When the frequency reaches the high frequency range, the inductive reactance (XL) becomes dominant, so the impedance increases as the frequency increases.

• ### Leakage Current

The dielectric of the capacitor has a great hindrance to DC current. However, since the aluminum oxide film medium is immersed in the electrolyte, when a voltage is applied, a small current called a leakage current is generated when the oxide film is reformed and repaired. Generally, the leakage current increases as the temperature and voltage increase.

• ### Ripple Current and Ripple Voltage

In some materials, the two are called "chopper current" and "chopper voltage", which is actually ripple current, ripple voltage. The meaning is that the capacitor can withstand the ripple current / voltage value. They are closely related to ESR and can be expressed by the following formula:

Urms = Irms × R

In the formula, Vrms represents the ripple voltage

Irms represents ripple current

R represents the ESR of the capacitor

It can be seen from the above that when the ripple current is increased, the chopping voltage is multiplied even when the ESR remains unchanged. In other words, as the ripple voltage increases, the ripple current also increases, which is why the capacitor is required to have a lower ESR value. After the ripple current is added to the stack, heat is generated due to the equivalent series resistance (ESR) inside the capacitor, which affects the life of the capacitor. In general, the ripple current is proportional to the frequency, so the ripple current is also low at low frequencies.

## Basic Formula of Capacitor Parameters

• Capacity (Fala)

Inch: C = ( 0.224 × K · A) / TD

Metric: C = ( 0.0884 × K · A) / TD

• Energy Stored in the Capacitor

E = ? CV2

• The Linear Charge of the Capacitor

I = C (dV/dt)

• The Total Impedance of the Capacitor (ohms)

Z = √ [ RS

2 + (XC – XL)2 ]

• Capacitive Reactance (ohm)

XC = 1/(2πfC)

• Phase Angle Ф

Ideal capacitor: advanced current voltage 90o

Ideal inductor: hysteresis current voltage 90o

Ideal resistor: the same phase as the current voltage

• Dissipation Coefficient (%)

D.F. = tan δ (loss angle)

= ESR / XC

= (2πfC)(ESR)

• Quality Factors

Q = cotan δ = 1/ DF

• Equivalent Series Resistance ESR (ohms)

ESR = (DF) XC = DF/ 2πfC

• Power Consumption

Power Loss = (2πfCV2) (DF)

• Power Factor

PF = sin δ (loss angle) – cos Ф (phase angle)

• Root Mean Square

rms = 0.707 × Vp

• KVA (kilowatt)

KVA = 2πfCV2 × 10-3

• The Temperature Coefficient of the Capacitor

T.C. = [ (Ct – C25) / C25 (Tt – 25) ] × 106

• Capacity Loss (%)

CD = [ (C1 – C2) / C1 ] × 100

• The Reliability of Ceramic Capacitors

L0 / Lt = (Vt / V0) X (Tt / T0)Y

• The Capacitance Value In Series

n capacitors in series: 1/CT = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + .... + 1/Cn

two capacitors in series: CT = C1 · C2 / (C1 + C2)

• The Capacitance Value In Parallel

CT = C1 + C2 + …. + Cn

• Againg Rate

A.R. = % ?C / decade of time

• The Symbols In the Above Formula Are As Follows:

K = dielectric constant

A = area

TD = insulation thickness

V = voltage

t = time

RS = series resistance

f = frequency

L = inductance inductive coefficient

δ = loss angle

Ф = phase angle

L0 = service life

Lt = test life

Vt = test voltage

V0 = operating voltage

Tt = test temperature

T0 = operating temperature

X , Y = effect index of voltage and temperature

## X, Y Safety Capacitor at the Input of the Power Supply

At the AC input, it is generally necessary to add three capacitors to suppress EMI conducted interference. The input of the AC power supply can generally be divided into three lines: FireWire (L) / Neutral (N) / Ground (G). The capacitor connected between the live and ground lines and between the neutral and ground lines is generally referred to as a Y capacitor. The position of the two Y capacitors is relatively critical, and must comply with relevant safety standards to prevent leakage of electronic equipment or the casing is charged, which is likely to endanger personal safety and life. Therefore, they are all safety capacitors, and the capacitance value cannot be too large. The withstand voltage must be high. Generally, a machine operating in a subtropical zone requires that the earth leakage current should not exceed 0.7 mA; working in a temperate machine requires that the earth leakage current should not exceed 0.35 mA. Therefore, the total capacity of the Y capacitor generally cannot exceed 4700pF.

Special note: The Y capacitor is a safe capacitor and must be certified by a safety inspection agency. The voltage tolerance of Y capacitors is generally marked with a safety certification mark and AC250V or AC275V, but its true DC withstand voltage is as high as 5000V or more. Therefore, the Y capacitor cannot be used arbitrarily using a nominal voltage of AC250V or a common capacitor such as DC400V.

A capacitor connected in parallel between the live line and the neutral line is generally referred to as an X capacitor. Since the location of this capacitor connection is also critical, it also needs to meet safety standards. Therefore, the X capacitor is also one of the safety capacitors. The capacitance of the X capacitor is allowed to be larger than the Y capacitor, but a safety resistor must be connected in parallel with the X capacitor to prevent the power cord plug from being charged for a long time due to the charging and discharging process of the capacitor. The safety standard stipulates that when the working power cord is unplugged, the voltage charged at both ends of the power cord plug (or ground potential) must be less than 30% of the original rated operating voltage within two seconds. Similarly, the X capacitor is also a safety capacitor and must be certified by a safety inspection agency. The X capacitor's withstand voltage is generally marked with the safety certification mark and AC250V or AC275V, but its true DC withstand voltage is as high as 2000V or more. Do not use the nominal voltage AC250V or DC400V to replace it.

X capacitors generally use polyester film capacitors with large ripple current. These capacitors are generally large in size, but they allow a large amount of current for instantaneous charge and discharge, and their internal resistance is relatively small. The common capacitor ripple current has a low index and a high dynamic internal resistance. Replacing the X capacitor with a common capacitor, in addition to the withstand voltage conditions can not be met, the general ripple current index is also difficult to meet the requirements.

In fact, it is not possible to rely solely on the Y and X capacitors to completely filter out conducted interference signals. Because the spectrum of the interfering signal is very wide, it covers the frequency range from tens of KHz to several hundred MHz, even thousands of MHz. Generally, the filtering of the low-end interference signal requires a large-capacity filter capacitor, but due to the safety conditions, the capacity of the Y-capacitor and the X-capacitor cannot be used large; the filtering of the high-end interference signal, the filtering of the large-capacity capacitor The performance is extremely poor, especially the high-frequency performance of the polyester film capacitor is generally poor, because it is produced by the winding process, and the high-frequency response characteristics of the polyester film medium is far from the ceramic or mica, generally The polyester film media has an adsorption effect, which reduces the operating frequency of the capacitor. The operating frequency range of the polyester film capacitor is about 1 MHz, and the impedance will increase significantly beyond 1 MHz.

Therefore, in order to suppress the conducted interference generated by the electronic device, in addition to the Y capacitor and the X capacitor, multiple types of inductive filters are also selected, and the interference is filtered together. Inductance filters are mostly low-pass filters, but there are many types of inductive filters, such as differential mode, common mode, and high frequency and low frequency. Each type of inductor is mainly used for filtering out interference signals of a certain small frequency, and the filtering effect of interference signals of other frequencies is not large. Generally, an inductor with a large inductance has a large number of turns, and the distributed capacitance of the inductor is also large. The high frequency interference signal will be bypassed by the distributed capacitance. Moreover, a magnetic core with a high magnetic permeability has a lower operating frequency. At present, the operating frequency of a large number of inductive filter cores is mostly below 75 MHz. For applications where the operating frequency is relatively high, high-frequency toroidal cores must be used. The magnetic permeability of high-frequency toroidal cores is generally not high, but the leakage inductance is particularly small, such as amorphous alloy cores, permalloys, etc.

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