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Mar 28 2018

What is Intelligent Sensor and Its Applications

Warm hints: The word in this article is about 4800 words and the reading time is about 28 minutes.

Summary

Intelligent sensor,also called “smart sensor”,as a tool for human access to information, sensors are an important part of modern information technology. In the traditional sense, the output of the sensor is mostly analog signal. It doesn't have the function of signal processing and networking. It needs to connect to a specific measuring instrument to complete the signal processing and transmission function. 

Intelligent Sensor

Intelligent Sensor

Smart sensors can process raw data internally, and can exchange data with the outside world through standard interfaces, and change the work of sensors by software control according to actual needs, so as to achieve intellectualization and networking. Because of the use of standard bus interface, the intelligent sensor has good openness and expansibility, which has brought great development space to the expansion of the system. So what is an intelligent sensor?

Article CoreWhat is Intelligent Sensor and Its ApplicationsPuporseComprehensive introduction about intelligent sensor
English NameIntelligent sensorCategorySensor
Applicationchemical,Nework,medical and etc.FeatureHigh precision,high stability,high reliability and etc.

Catalogs

Catalogs
I. What is an Intelligent Sensor1. Implementation of Intelligent Sensors 1. Molecular Sensor7. Sleep - Promoting "Sense" Sensor
1. Intelligent Sensor Denifition2. Intelligent Sensor Technology2. Wireless Sensor8. EMG Sensor
2. Types of IntelligentSensor and Its StructureV. Development and Trend of Intelligent Sensor Technology3. Bioluminescence Sensor9. Temperature Sensor
II. The Features of Intelligent Sensor1.TheDevelopment Trend of Intelligent Sensor Technology4. Artificial Hair Sensor9. Temperature Sensor
III.The functions of Intelligent sensor2.Development Priority of Intelligent Sensor5. Compound Touch Sensor10. Skin Sensor
IV.Implementation of Intelligent SensorVI.  Intelligent Sensor Applications6. Air Sensor




Introduction

I. What is an Intelligent Sensor

  • 1. Intelligent Sensor Denifition

The concept of smart sensors was first introduced by NASA in the process of developing a spaceship and formed a product in 1979. Spaceships need lots of sensors to send data, such as temperature, position, velocity and attitude to the ground or spacecraft, even though using a large computer, it is difficult to process such huge data at the same time. Besides, the spacecraft restricts the volume and weight of the computer. It is hoped that the sensor itself has information processing function, so the smart sensor will appear when the sensor is combined with the microprocessor. 

This video explains what is intelligent sensor clearly.

Intelligent sensor is a kind of function that can sense and detect a certain object's information, and can learn, judge and process signals, and has a new type of sensor with communication and management functions. The intelligent sensor has the ability to automatically calibrate, calibrate, compensate and collect data. Its capability determines that the intelligent sensor has high accuracy and resolution, high stability and reliability, and good adaptability. Compared with traditional sensors, it has high performance price ratio. Early intelligent sensors are processed and converted from the output signal of the sensor to the microprocessor for operation. In 80s, the smart sensor mainly focused on microprocessor, and integrated the sensor signal conditioning circuit, microelectronic computer memory and interface circuit to a chip, so that the sensor has certain AI. In 90s, intelligent measurement technology has been further improved, so that the sensor to achieve miniaturization, integration, array, digital structure, convenient use, simple operation, and has the function of self diagnosis, memory and information processing function, data storage function, multi parameter measurement, network communication function, logical thinking and judging function.

Intelligent Sensor

Intelligent Sensor

  • 2. Types of IntelligentSensor and Its Structure

> 1). the types of smart sensor is as following:

  • a. sensor with the ability to judge

  • b. sensor with learning ability

  • c. sensor with creative ability

> 2). The structure of intelligent sensor

The composition of intelligent sensor

The composition of intelligent sensor

The intelligent sensor system is mainly composed of sensors, microprocessors and related circuits, as shown in the picture. The sensor converts the measured physical quantity and chemical quantity to the corresponding electrical signal, sends it to the signal modulation circuit, and then sends it to the microprocessor after filtering, amplifying and A/D conversion. Microprocessor computing, storage, data analysis and processing of the received signal, a feedback loop of the sensor and signal conditioning circuit is adjusted in order to achieve the regulation and control of measurement process; on the other hand, the processing result is transmitted to the output interface, the interface circuit after processing according to the output format, output interface customization the measurement results of digital. Microprocessor is the core of intelligent sensor. Because of the function of various software, the sensor is intelligentized, and the performance of sensor is greatly improved.

intelligent sensor system

intelligent sensor system

II. The Features of Intelligent Sensor

  • >(1) High precision

Intelligent sensor through the automatic zero correction and removal of zero, standard reference real-time automatic contrast overall system calibration, nonlinear system error, a large number of real-time data analysis and processing, to eliminate the effects of accidental error, ensure the accuracy of intelligent sensor.

  • >(2) High reliability and high stability

The intelligent sensor system can automatically compensate for the characteristics of working conditions and the environment parameters change caused by the drift of zero and sensitivity such as environmental temperature, system supply voltage fluctuations caused by drift; can automatically transform the range in the measured parameters, the real-time system of self inspection, analysis and judgment of the data rationality emergency treatment, and automatic abnormal situation.

  • >(3) High signal to noise ratio and high resolution

The intelligent sensor has data storage, memory and information processing functions, through digital filtering and correlation analysis, can remove the noise in the input data, the automatic extraction of useful data; through data fusion, neural network technique can eliminate the influence of many parameters under the condition of cross sensitivity.

  • >(4) Strong self adaptability

Intelligent sensor has the function of judgement, analysis and processing. It can make decisions about the power supply of each part and the data transmission rate with high / top computers according to the working conditions of the system, so that the system works in the optimal low power state and optimizes the transmission efficiency.

  • >(5) Higher performance and price ratio

The intelligent sensor has high performance, not like the traditional sensor technology that through the pursuit of perfection, the sensor itself in all aspects of sensor design and debugging, carefully crafted handicrafts "to obtain, but through the combination of computer and microprocessor / micro chip, using integrated circuit technology and cheap and powerful software to achieve, so it has high performance price ratio.

III.The functions of Intelligent sensor

The function of intelligent sensor is simulated by simulating the coordination action of human's sense organs and brain, combining with the research and practical experience of long term test technology. It is a relatively independent intelligent unit. Its appearance has reduced the harsh requirements of the original hardware performance, and has greatly improved the performance of the sensor by software assistance. Intelligent sensors can usually implement the following functions:

  • >(1) We observe the natural phenomena around us. The common signals are sound, light, electricity, heat, force and chemistry. Sensitive element measurements are generally measured in two ways: direct and indirect measurements.

The intelligent sensor has a complex function, which can measure a variety of physical quantities and chemical quantities at the same time, and gives information that can reflect the law of material motion in a more comprehensive way. As a composite liquid sensor California University, temperature, velocity, pressure and density can be measured at the same time medium. The composite mechanical sensor developed by the EG&GIC Sensors company in the United States can measure the three-dimensional vibration acceleration, velocity and displacement of a point at the same time.

  • >(2) Adaptive functional intelligent sensors can automatically adapt their own characteristics to this change in a certain range of conditions. 

Adaptive technology can extend the life of the device or device because it can compensate for the parameter drift caused by the aging component. At the same time, it also expands its field of work, because it can automatically adapt to different environmental conditions. Adaptive technology improves the repeatability and accuracy of the sensor. Because the correction and compensation value is no longer an average value, it is the true correction value of the measurement point.

  • >(3) Self-test, self calibration, self diagnosis function of the common sensor requires periodic inspection and calibration, to ensure that it is in normal use accurate enough, these general requirements of the sensor from the field to the laboratory or inspection departments to remove, for online measuring sensor is abnormal is not timely diagnosis.

When intelligent sensors are used, the situation is greatly improved. In the first place, self - diagnostic functions are performed on the power of the power supply, and the diagnostic test is used to determine the failure of the component. Secondly, it can be corrected online according to the time of use, and the microprocessor uses the measurement characteristic data in E2PROM to check and proofread.

  • >(4) Information storage function information is often the key to success. An intelligent sensor can store a large amount of information, and the user can query it at any time. These information can include the historical information of the device.

For example, how many hours the sensor has worked, how many times the power supply is replaced, and so on. It also includes all the data and charts of the sensors, including configuration selection instructions, etc. In addition, the serial number, production date, catalogue and final result of the final factory test are also included. The content can be unlimited, only limited by the storage capacity of the intelligent sensor itself. In addition to the four functions of process data processing, self diagnosis, configuration and information storage, intelligent sensors also provide the ability of digital communication and self adaptation.

  • >(5) Data processing is a very important task for processing data processing, and the smart sensor itself provides this function. The intelligent sensor can not only enlarge the signal, but also make the signal digitize, and use the software to realize the signal adjustment. Generally, the basic sensor can not give a linear signal, and the process control takes the linearity as an important goal. The intelligent sensor can linearize the nonlinear signal by look-up table mode.

Of course, this data sheet should be compiled separately for each sensor. Another example of intelligent sensor process data processing is filtering the digital signal through digital filter, so as to reduce the interference of noise or other related effects. And it is much easier to develop complex filters with software than to use discrete electronic circuits. Environmental factor compensation is also an important task of data processing. The microcontroller can help improve the accuracy of signal detection. For example, the correct temperature compensation coefficient can be obtained by measuring the temperature of the basic detection element, thus the temperature compensation for the signal can be realized. The use of software can also achieve nonlinear compensation and other more complex compensation. This is because the query table can produce almost any shape of the curve. Sometimes a few different physical quantities must be measured and processed so that their respective data will be given. The emblem controller of the intelligent sensor can easily realize the operation of adding, subtraction, multiplication and division of multiple signals. In the process of process data processing, the intelligent sensor can be very important.

 intelligent sensor is important in the process of data processing

 intelligent sensor is important in the process of data processing

In addition, it is also beneficial to put these operations from under the central control room to the point of proximity to the signal generating point. One is that it costs a lot to send an additional signal to the control room, and the cost of additional sensors and leads is saved with a smart sensor. The other is that the additional information is detected at the application point of information, which greatly reduces the negative effects (such as noise and potential difference) introduced by long distance transmission, and makes the signal more accurate. The third is to simplify the software in the main controller and improve the speed of the control loop.

  • > (6) Another main feature of the configuration function intelligent sensor is the configuration function. 

How many times should the signal be magnified? Is the temperature sensor output at centigrade or Fahrenheit? For smart sensor users, the desired configuration can be selected at will. For example, detection range, programmable pass / break delay, select group counter, open / normally close, 8/12 bit resolution selection, etc. It's just a few of the countless configurations of today's smart sensors. The flexible configuration function greatly reduces the needs of the user to develop and replace the necessary types and number of different sensors. Using the configuration function of intelligent sensor can make the same type of sensor work in the best state, and can do different work on different occasions.

  • > (7) The function of digital communication is as mentioned above. Because smart sensors can generate large amounts of information and data, the single input and output of ordinary sensors can not provide necessary input and output for device data. But you can't use a lead line for each information, because it makes the system very complex,it needs a flexible serial communication system.

In the process industry, point and point connection and series network are usually seen. The big trend is to develop in the direction of series network. Because the smart sensor itself has a microcontroller, it belongs to digital, so it can naturally configure the digital serial communication with the external connection. Because the ability of the serial network to resist environmental impact (such as electromagnetic interference) is much stronger than the ordinary analog signal. The transmission of information can be managed effectively by matching the serial communication to the device, so that the data can be output only when required.



Detail

IV.Implementation of Intelligent Sensor

  • 1. Implementation of Intelligent Sensors 

At present, the implementation of intelligent sensors is carried out in three ways along the development of sensor technology.

A. the use of computer synthesis, that is, intelligent synthesis;

B. the use of special functional materials, that is, intelligent materials;

C. using the functionalized geometric structure, that is, the intelligent structure. Intelligent synthesis is the combination of sensor devices and microprocessors, which is the main approach at present.

  • 2. Intelligent Sensor Technology

According to the synthetic method of sensor and computer, the current sensing technology uses the following three specific ways to realize the intelligent sensor.

> Non integrated module mode. Non integrated intelligent sensor is an intelligent sensor system composed of traditional basic sensor, signal conditioning circuit and microprocessor with digital bus interface. This kind of non integrated intelligent sensor is developed rapidly in the development of the development situation of the field bus control system. Manufacturer of automation instrument the original set of production equipment basically unchanged, additional a digital microprocessor bus interface board is assembled, and equipped with communication, control, self correction, self compensation, self diagnosis of intelligent software, to realize the intelligent sensor function. This is the most economical and fast way to build intelligent sensors.

> Integrated implementation. The smart sensor system adopts micromachining technology and large-scale integrated circuit technology, and uses silicon as the basic material to make sensitive components, signal conditioning circuits and microprocessor units, and integrate them on a chip. The integrated realization makes the intelligent sensor achieve miniaturization and structure integration, thus improving the accuracy and stability. After the array of sensitive elements is made up of the array and the corresponding image processing software, it can realize graphic imaging and constitute multi-dimensional image sensor. At that time, the intelligent sensor has reached its most advanced form.

Integrated implementation

Integrated implementation

>Mixed realization. There are many difficult problems to realize the intelligent sensor system on a chip. According to the need and possibility, we can integrate all the integration links of the system, such as sensitive unit, signal conditioning circuit, microprocessor unit and digital bus interface, and integrate them on two or three chips in different combinations.

186a.jpeg

Mixed realization


Analysis

V. Development and Trend of Intelligent Sensor Technology

  • 1.TheDevelopment Trend of Intelligent Sensor Technology

> to develop toward high-precision. With the improvement of automatic production level, the demand for sensors is also improving. We must develop new sensors with high sensitivity, high accuracy, fast response and good interchangeability, so as to ensure the reliability of production automation.

> develop towards high reliability and wide temperature range. The reliability of sensors directly affects the anti-interference performance of electronic devices. The development of sensors with high reliability and wide temperature range will be permanent direction. The development of new materials (such as ceramics) will be promising.

> to develop toward miniaturization. The function of various control equipment are more and more strong, requirements in various parts of the smaller the better, so the sensor itself is the volume as small as possible, which requires the development of new materials and processing technology, the current volume of sensor fabricated by silicon material has been very small. For example, the traditional accelerometer is made of gravity block and spring. It has large volume, poor stability and short life. And the silicon acceleration sensor made by various micro machining technologies such as laser has small volume, good interchangeability and reliability.

> to develop toward  micro power and passive. Sensors are generally non electricity conversion work, cannot do without power, in the field or from the grid, are often powered by batteries or solar power, the development of micro power sensor and passive sensor is inevitable direction of development, such as it can save energy and improve the service life of the system. At present, low power consumption chips have developed rapidly, such as the T12702 operational amplifier, with a static power consumption of only 1.5 A, while the operating voltage is only 2~ 5V.

> to develop toward the digital and intelligent. With the development of modernization, the function of the sensor has exceeded the traditional function, the output is no longer a single analog signal (0~ 10mV), but after the digital signal processing microcomputer after, some even with the control function, which is called digital sensor.

> to develop toward network. Networked development is an important direction for the development of sensors. The role and advantages of the network are gradually emerging. Network sensors will certainly promote the development of Electronic Science and technology.

  • 2.Development Priority of Intelligent Sensor

> The application of machine intelligence to the fault detection and prediction. Any system must detect or predict the possible problems before it is wrong and causes serious consequences. At present, the model of abnormal state is not exactly defined, and the abnormal detection technology is still very lacking. It is urgent to combine sensor information and knowledge to improve machine intelligence.

> In the normal state, the physical parameters of the target can be perceived by high precision and Gao Min, but little progress is made in the detection of malfunction and misoperation. Therefore, it has an urgent need for fault detection and prediction, and should be vigorously developed and applied.

> Current sensing technology can accurately sensing physical or chemical quantities on a single point, but it is difficult for multidimensional state sensing. Such as environmental measurement, its characteristic parameters are widely distributed and have temporal and spatial correlation, which is an urgent problem to be solved. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the research and development of multi-dimensional state sensing.

> Remote sensing of target component analysis. Most of the chemical composition analysis is based on sample material, and sometimes it is difficult to sample the target material. As the content of ozone in the stratosphere measurement, remote sensing is indispensable, combined with radar or laser detection technique of the measured spectra is a possible way.  The analysis without sample components is easy to be interfered by all kinds of noise or medium between sensing system and target components, and the machine intelligence of sensor system is expected to solve this problem.

> Sensor intelligence for efficient circulation of resources. The modern manufacturing system has realized the efficient automated production process from raw materials to products. When the product is no longer used or abandoned, the cycle process is neither effective nor automated. If the recycling of renewable resources can be carried out effectively and automatically, environmental pollution and energy shortage can be effectively prevented, and the management of life cycle resources can be realized. It is a very important task for an intelligent sensor system to use machine intelligence to distinguish target components or certain components.

VI.  Intelligent Sensor Applications

  • 1. Molecular Sensor

Although chemical technology has been applied to invisible ink in the past, continuous improvement of detection methods has been difficult to ensure that hidden information is not read under unauthorized circumstances. In view of this situation, Weizmann and his research team developed a fluorescent molecular sensor, which can distinguish different chemical substances by generating specific fluorescence emission spectra. The Research Institute of Israel Academy of science and technology, Weizmann, has developed a fluorescent molecule sensor. Considering the recent concern about global electronic surveillance, the sensor provides a security means to bypass the electronic communication system.

  • 2. Wireless Sensor

In recent years, the fitness tracker has become a more popular wearable technology product. However, engineers from University of California at Berkeley promoted the concept further, and developed a tiny wireless sensor to detect the health status of the human body. It is reported that the equipment has been reduced to a cubic millimeter of about one particle of dust, known as "nerve dust". These sensors can be implanted in the human body, where they will detect tissues, muscles and nerves in real time. Wireless sensors are becoming more and more widely used in the fields of industry, agriculture, military, aviation, architecture, medical, environmental protection and so on. Shenzhen Xinli technology has been committed to various types of wireless sensor design, research and development, and provide wireless data acquisition and transmission monitoring system solutions based on wireless sensor network. For example, wireless temperature and humidity sensors, wireless pressure sensors, wireless temperature sensors, wireless gas sensors, wireless liquid level sensors, and so on. The actual application in the smart environment monitoring system, intelligent agricultural greenhouse cultivation environment monitoring system, storage intelligence collection of environmental monitoring systems, intelligent network monitoring system, environmental monitoring system for major hazard sources, energy management system, monitoring system of atmospheric environmental quality and production of intelligent monitoring system.

  • 3. Bioluminescence Sensor

Bioluminescence sensor is actually a new research method. It was invented by a group of scientists from Vanderbilt University in USA by gene transformation of luciferase. According to the researchers, the new sensor can be used to track the internal interaction of the large neural networks in the brain.

  • 4. Artificial Hair Sensor

For humans, skin is not only a barrier to protect us from dust and bacteria, but also a medium for the change in the environment. As researchers develop robotics, they are trying to create functions like real skin for robots. He Xiaodong, a professor of Materials Science in Harbin Institute of Technology, and his colleagues made innovations in this field. The new technology they developed can imitate the fine hair on the surface of human body and transmit sensory information to the robot. The researchers used 30 micron wire instead of hair, and a row of fine wires embedded in silicone rubber, and the row wire role is to bring the outside information of artificial skin. The research results can be used for sensing prosthetic limbs or corresponding medical care equipment.

  • 5. CompoundTouch Sensor

At present, most of the robot's touch sensors only have force sensors, so they can only detect the hardness and texture of objects, which makes robots identify the external objects with low accuracy. But if it is combined with a traditional power sensor, a complex touch sensor can help the robot identify the composition of the object. It is in this principle that experts from Georgia Institute of Technology show their "skin" designed for robots to generate heat, conductive and non-conductive fabrics and thermistors.

  • 6. Air Sensor

TZOA day before the company has launched a new air sensor. It is understood that this is a sensor that collects air quality information. The information collected includes particle types and quantities, and whether there are harmful chemicals in them. It also protects the fetus and children from contaminants that affect the development of the brain. In the future, the company plans to sell outdoor pollution equipment in China and India, as well as the sale of indoor pollution equipment in the United States. TZOA is also developing asthma equipment that can help determine the triggers of asthma attacks.

  • 7. Sleep - Promoting "Sense" Sensor

It is reported that James, in London, England, has invented a sleep sensor called "Sense". It is understood that the "Sense" sensor can automatically adjust the lights, control the heating according to the master's regulation, and even play the soothing music to promote human sleep. During sleep, it can also adjust the environment to the most comfortable condition. The sound, light, temperature, humidity and air quality can also be monitored, and the sleep status of the users per night can be graded.

  • 8. EMG Sensor

Sensors have been playing an important role in the field of medical health because they are in the most outpost of collecting data. The EMG sensor Cheng Shanghai independent research and development is a kind of electric charge sensor, with high sampling rate, strong anti-interference ability, good filtering effect. The sensor has been successfully applied in the medical rehabilitation and the bionic leg, the future will expand to VR/AR, physical fitness, outside of the human skeleton sunrise industry.

  • 9. Temperature Sensor

SirenCare, a company dedicated to the health monitoring of diabetic patients, has developed a smart socks which can detect whether the patient has inflammation through the temperature sensor, so as to detect the health status of diabetic patients in real time. Siren's socks are closer to the skin compared to the boots and insoles that were developed by other companies.  Sensors are woven into socks, which can detect foot inflammation at any time, and all information detected will be uploaded to App on smart phones, so that patients can understand their feet at any time.

  • 10. Skin Sensor

It's reported that Japanese researchers have recently invented a cheap integrated sensor like a band - stick. This band aid integrated sensor is a flexible device that can be attached to the body freely. It can monitor human activity, heart rate and ultraviolet intensity. It can be used in health management and Internet of things. The sticker skin sensor is printed on the thin plastic film with the latest developed printing technology. Compared with the previous semiconductor sensor manufacturing technology, it has low cost, and takes account of the convenience and low cost.



Book Recommendation

  • Intelligent Sensor Design Using the Microchip dsPIC (Embedded Technology)

Intelligent seonsors are revolutionizing the world of system design in everything from sports cars to assembly lines. These new sensors have abilities that leave their predecessors in the dust! They not only measure parameters efficiently and precisely, but they also have the ability to enhance and interupt those measurements, thereby transforming raw data into truly useful information.Unlike many embedded systems books that confine themselves strictly to firmware and software, this book also delves into the supporting electronic hardware, providing the reader with a complete understanding of the issues involved when interfacing to specific types of sensor and offering insight into the real-world problems designers will face. The examples provide a complete, easily extensible code framework for sensor-based applications as well as basic support routines that are often ignored or treated superficially. The goal throughout is to make readers truly productive as quickly as possible while providing the thorough understanding necessary to design robust systems.

--Creed Huddleston(Author)

  • Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning

Although governments worldwide have invested significantly in intelligent sensor network research and applications, few books cover intelligent sensor networks from a machine learning and signal processing perspective. Filling this void, Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning focuses on the close integration of sensing, networking, and smart signal processing via machine learning.Based on the world-class research of award-winning authors, the book provides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of intelligent sensor networks, including compressive sensing and sampling, distributed signal processing, and intelligent signal learning. Presenting recent research results of world-renowned sensing experts, the book is organized into three parts:Machine Learning,Signal Processing,Networking.

--Fei Hu (Editor),‎ Qi Hao (Editor)

  • Smart Sensors Networks: Communication Technologies and Intelligent Applications (Intelligent Data-Centric Systems: Sensor Collected Intelligence)

Smart Sensors Networks: Communication Technologies and Intelligent Applications explores the latest sensor and sensor networks techniques and applications, showing how networked wireless sensors are used to monitor and gather intelligence from our surrounding environment.It provides a systematic look at the unique characteristics of wireless sensor networks through their usage in a broad range of areas, including healthcare for the elderly, energy consumption, industrial automation, intelligent transportation systems, smart homes and cities, and more.

--Fatos Xhafa (Editor),‎ Fang-Yie Leu (Editor),‎ Li-Ling Hung (Editor)



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7 comments

    • Alexei on 2018-3-28 11:12:30

    Intelligent sensor is a sensor with information processing function. The intelligent sensor has the ability of collecting, processing and exchanging information with the microprocessor. It is the product of the integration of sensor and the microprocessor. Compared with general sensors, smart sensors have the following three advantages: software technology can achieve high precision information acquisition, and low cost; has a certain programming automation capabilities, functional diversification. A good 'smart sensor' is a microprocessor - driven sensor and instrument suite, and has the functions of communication and board - borne diagnostics. by Alexei

    • Fattie on 2018-3-28 11:17:39

    At present, there are no standardized scientific definitions for smart sensors. To sum up many scholars' views, I believe that intelligent sensors should be defined by imitating human sensory and brain functions. In essence, it should be defined as a sensor based on the theory of artificial intelligence, which uses microprocessors to implement intelligent processing functions.

    • Brad on 2018-3-28 11:20:38

    At present, there are no standardized scientific definitions for smart sensors. To sum up many scholars' views, the author believes that intelligent sensors should be defined by imitating human sensory and brain functions. In essence, it should be defined as a sensor based on the theory of artificial intelligence, which uses microprocessors to implement intelligent processing functions.Of all the electronic components, I prefer the sensor more.

    • Ell on 2018-3-28 11:23:08

    I am doing an air purifier, the temperature and humidity sensor always choose not good, mainly the humidity sensor reading too far from the actual. A temperature and humidity sensor with a model of HTU21D is used, the temperature is normal, the humidity and the normal value are more than 20, and the DHT11 is used, the humidity and the normal value are more than 10. Anyone recommend me a kind of high quality humidity sensor?

    • Mayya on 2018-3-28 11:39:00

    Hello~sir When I use python to manage a network of sensors and controls,some troubles occurred. I have an Arduino that is wired to a number of sensors. Several times a second, the Arduino sends data to a Raspberry Pi with information about the sensors using a ASCII-based serial communication scheme. An example of a response is: "#POSITION 47 59203.008" This response says that position sensor 47 is at position 59203.008 m. My problem is getting the data from the Arduino object to the proper sensor objects. What would be a good pattern for this type of programming problem? Mayya

      • author on 2018-3-28 11:40:43
        author

      Re:

      I assume your Arduino code is doing the polling in its main loop then sending the data to the RPi. Check the following points:

      1. Do you have enough bandwidth to just send all the sensor values with every message from the Arduino to the RPi? 

      2. You can build a map of the latest sensor values and let the individual sensor classes read this map and take actions based on the latest value.

      f you don't have enough bandwidth, consider using a binary protocol instead of an ASCII protocol but only if you need to.


    • zuka on 2018-3-28 11:45:05

    Hi~sir At present, there are many different sensors in the market, I would like to ask that how to choose the correct sensor? zuka

      • author on 2018-3-28 11:47:44
        author

      Re:

      The following points should be paid attention to with the correct selection of sensors.

      1) determine the type of the sensor according to the measuring object and the measurement environment.

      2) the selection of sensitivity. The sensitivity of the sensor is directional. When the measurement is a one-way quantity and has a high requirement for its directivity, we should choose other direction sensitive sensors. If the measurement is multi-dimensional vector, then the smaller the cross sensitivity of the sensor is, the better.

      3) frequency response characteristics. The frequency response characteristic of the sensor determines the frequency range to be measured, and the measurement condition must be kept in the allowed frequency range. In fact, there is always a definite delay in the response of sensors, and the shorter the delay time is, the better.

      4) linear range. The linear range of the sensor is the range that the output is proportional to the input. In theory, in this range, the sensitivity remains fixed.  The wider the linear range of the sensor is, the larger the range is, and it can ensure a certain measurement accuracy. When the sensor is selected, when the type of sensor is determined, it is necessary to see if the range of the sensor meets the requirements.

      5) stability. When a sensor is used for a period of time, the ability to keep its performance unchanged is called stability. The factors that affect the long-term stability of the sensor, except the structure of the sensor itself, are mainly the use of the sensor environment. Therefore, in order to make the sensor with good stability, the sensor must have a strong adaptability to the environment.

      6) precision. Precision is an important performance index of the sensor. It is an important link to the measurement precision of the whole measurement system. The precision of the sensor is high, its price is more expensive, therefore, the precision of the sensor as long as meet the measurement accuracy requirements can be, does not need to be so high.

      Note: for some special occasions, it is not possible to choose the appropriate sensor, and the sensor is designed by itself. The performance of the self-made sensor should meet the requirements of use.


    • kim on 2018-4-9 15:48:25

    Sensors are an important part of modern information technology such as AI and robot!

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