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Apr 17 2019

What Is A Supercapacitor?

Warm hints: This article contains about 5000 words and reading time is about 15 mins.

Introduction

Supercapacitors are capacitors that utilize the principle of an electric double layer. When an applied voltage is applied to the two plates of the supercapacitor, as with a conventional capacitor, the positive electrode of the plate stores a positive charge, and the negative plate stores a negative charge, under the action of an electric field generated by the charge on the two plates of the supercapacitor. The opposite charge is formed at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode to balance the internal electric field of the electrolyte. The positive and negative charges are arranged on the contact surface between the two different phases with a very short gap between positive and negative charges. In the opposite position, this charge distribution layer is called an electric double layer, so the capacitance is very large. When the potential between the two plates is lower than the redox electrode potential of the electrolyte, the charge at the interface of the electrolyte does not leave the electrolyte, and the supercapacitor is in a normal working state (usually below 3V), for example, the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the oxidation of the electrolyte. When the electrode potential is reduced, the electrolyte will decompose and become abnormal. As the supercapacitor discharges, the charge on the positive and negative plates is discharged by the external circuit, and the charge at the interface of the electrolyte is correspondingly reduced. It can be seen that the charging and discharging process of the supercapacitor is always a physical process and there is no chemical reaction. Therefore, the performance is stable and is different from the battery using the chemical reaction.

Article Core

Supercapacitor

Purpose

Introduce what the supercapacitor is.

Application

Semiconductor industry

Keywords

Supercapacitor

Catalog

Introduction


Definition of Supercapacitors


Characteristics of Supercapacitors


Advantages and Disadvantages of Supercapacitors

3.1 Advantages

3.2 Disadvantages

 

 

 

 

 

Main Applications of Supercapacitors

4.1 Application of Super Capacitor in Solar Energy System

4.2 Application Analysis of Super Capacitor in Wind Power Generation System

4.3 Opportunities of Supercapacitors in the Development of New Energy Vehicles

4.4 Intelligent Distributed Grid System

4.5 Distributed Energy Storage System

4.6 Application of Super Capacitor in Military Equipment

4.7 Research and Analysis on the Application of Urban Rail Transit

4.8 Application of Super Capacitor in Motion Control

 

 

 

 

Supercapacitors Currently Have Major Application Cases

5.1 Pure Electric Vehicle or Hybrid Electric Vehicle

5.2 Low Temperature Start-up of Vehicles

5.3 Energy Recovery of Railway Vehicles

5.4 Aerospace

5.5 Electric Forklift

5.6 Crane

5.7 Solar Energy

5.8 Electric Tool

5.9 Electric Toys

5.10 UPS(UninterrupTIblePowerSupply)

5.11 Telecommunications


ⅠDefinition of Supercapacitors

Capacitors are commonly used electronic devices for storing electrical charges and are widely used in many electronic devices. Due to the rapid development of industry technology in the new era, the early circuit structure was gradually replaced by more complicated circuit forms, and ordinary capacitors could not meet the needs of circuit operation. In order to meet the needs of high-load or overloaded circuit operation, the use of supercapacitors has been promoted in China, and this device is superior in performance to conventional capacitors.

Supercapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors, electric double layer capacitors, gold capacitors, and farad capacitors, are electrochemical components that have been developed by polarized electrolytes since the 1970s and 1980s. It is different from the traditional chemical power source. It is a kind of power source with special performance between the traditional capacitor and the battery. It mainly relies on the electric double layer and the redox tantalum capacitor to store electric energy. However, there is no chemical reaction in the process of energy storage. This energy storage process is reversible, and it is precisely because this supercapacitor can be repeatedly charged and discharged hundreds of thousands of times.

Supercapacitors


Ⅱ Characteristics of Supercapacitors

(1) The charging speed is fast, and it can reach more than 95% of its rated capacity by charging for 10 seconds to 10 minutes;

(2) The cycle life is long, and the number of deep charge and discharge cycles can reach 10,000 to 500,000 times, without "memory effect";

(3) The high current discharge capacity is super strong, the energy conversion efficiency is high, the process loss is small, and the high current energy cycle efficiency is ≥90%;

(4) High power density, up to 300W/KG~5000W/KG, equivalent to 5~10 times of battery;

(5) The raw material composition, production, use, storage and dismantling process of the product are not polluted, and it is an ideal green environmental protection power source;

(6) The charging and discharging circuit is simple, no charging circuit like rechargeable battery is needed, and the safety factor is high, and the maintenance is long-term maintenance-free;

(7) Good ultra-low temperature characteristics, temperature range -40 ° C ~ +70 ° C;

(8) Easy to detect, the remaining power can be read directly;

(9) The capacity range is usually 0.1F--1000F.

Supercapacitors


Ⅲ Advantages and Disadvantages of Supercapacitors

Supercapacitors are not superior in every aspect of the process, which requires the advantages and disadvantages of the device to be mastered when using supercapacitors. Due to the limitations of manufacturing technology, there are still some shortcomings in installation and debugging when using supercapacitors in China. Many equipments cause circuit failures due to blind use of supercapacitors, which affects the performance of the entire equipment. As a new product of capacitors, the advantages exhibited by supercapacitors are significantly greater than the disadvantages.


3.1 Advantages

Supercapacitors are an upgrade of common capacitor devices, and many improvements have been made to early capacitors.

Capacitance

Conventional capacitors used in the early days have a small amount of capacitance storage and can only meet the circuit requirements of small loads. The capacitance level of supercapacitors can reach the Farad level and can be adapted to more complex circuit operation needs.

Circuit

Supercapacitors have lower requirements on the circuit structure, and do not need to be equipped with special charging circuits and control discharge circuits, and the use time of the capacitors is not affected by overcharge and overdischarge.

Welding

Ordinary capacitors cannot be soldered. When the supercapacitor is mounted, soldering can be performed as needed to prevent battery contact failure and other phenomena, and the performance of the capacitor component is improved.

Environmental protection

It is a green energy source that is less polluting to the environment than other conventional capacitors.


3.2 Disadvantages

Through the performance test of supercapacitors, it is found that this new type of capacitor also has disadvantages. Such as:

Leakage

The installation position of the supercapacitor is unreasonable, which easily causes problems such as electrolyte leakage and damages the structural performance of the capacitor.

Circuit

Supercapacitors are limited to the use of DC circuits. This is because the internal resistance of supercapacitors is larger than that of aluminum electrolytic capacitors, which is not suitable for the operation of AC circuits.

Effectiveness

The energy density is not high, and the efficiency of long-term discharge is not as good as that of batteries.

Price

Since supercapacitors are a new generation of high-tech products, they are relatively expensive when they are introduced to the market, increasing the cost of equipment operation.

Supercapacitors


Ⅳ Main Applications of Supercapacitors

Forecast of the scale of China's supercapacitor subdivision products in 2016-2022

Forecast of the scale of China's supercapacitor subdivision products in 2016-2022


4.1 Application of Super Capacitor in Solar Energy System

The use of solar energy sources ultimately comes down to two aspects of solar energy utilization and solar energy utilization. Solar power generation is divided into photovoltaic power generation and solar thermal power generation, in which photovoltaic power generation uses photovoltaic cells to directly convert solar energy into electrical energy. Photovoltaic power generation is far stronger than CSP in terms of conversion efficiency, equipment cost and development prospects. Since the advent of practical polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, the world has begun to use solar photovoltaic power generation.

At present, solar photovoltaic power generation systems have three development directions: independent operation, grid-connected and hybrid photovoltaic power generation systems. In an independent operating system, the energy storage unit is generally required to store the remaining electrical energy emitted by the sun for insufficient sunshine or no sunshine. At present, the demand of the international photovoltaic energy industry has begun to develop from the remote rural areas and special applications to the grid-connected power generation and construction combined power supply. Photovoltaic power generation has the transition from supplementary energy to alternative energy. The domestic photovoltaic energy system is still mainly used in remote and non-electric areas and urban street lights, lawn lights, garden lights, billboards and other independent photovoltaic power generation systems. Through the energy storage system composed of battery packs, it can smooth the fluctuation of electric energy caused by fluctuations in solar light intensity, and can also compensate for voltage dips or sudden rises in the grid system, but due to its limited number of charge and discharge, high current charge and discharge time is slow. And other factors, so its short life and high cost. Therefore, the use of ultra-capacitor banks in solar photovoltaic power generation systems will make grid-connected power generation more feasible.


4.2 Application Analysis of Super Capacitor in Wind Power Generation System

As the fastest growing renewable energy power generation technology, wind power has broad application prospects. However, wind energy is a randomly varying energy source. Wind speed changes can cause fluctuations in the output power of wind turbines, which can affect the power quality of the grid.

At present, the active power fluctuation of wind power mostly adopts the method of directly adjusting the operating state of the wind turbine to smooth its output power, but the power adjustment capability of the method is limited; the reactive power fluctuation usually adopts the parallel static reactive power compensation device for reactive power adjustment, but no The power compensation device cannot stabilize the active power fluctuations. By adding energy storage equipment, it is possible to adjust the reactive power, stabilize the bus voltage of the wind farm, and adjust the active power in a wide range. Wind power research shows that the fluctuating power at 0.01Hz-1Hz has the greatest impact on the power quality of the grid. The wind power fluctuation in this frequency band has the greatest impact on the power quality of the grid. Suppressing the wind power fluctuation in this frequency band can be achieved by using short-term energy storage. Therefore, the small-capacity energy storage device capable of realizing short-term energy storage has high application value to wind power generation. Due to its tens of thousands of cycles of charge and discharge cycle life and high current charge and discharge characteristics, supercapacitors can adapt to high current fluctuations of wind energy. It can absorb energy under conditions of sunny or strong wind during the day, and weak at night or wind. When it is discharged, it can smooth the fluctuation of wind power and achieve more efficient grid connection.


4.3 Opportunities of Supercapacitors in the Development of New Energy Vehicles

In the field of new energy vehicles, supercapacitors can be used in conjunction with secondary batteries to achieve energy storage and protect batteries. Usually, supercapacitors are used in combination with lithium-ion batteries. The two are perfectly combined to form a stable, energy-saving and environmentally-friendly power source for hybrid vehicles and pure electric vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries solve the problem of car charging and storing energy and providing lasting power for the car. The mission of supercapacitor is to provide high-power auxiliary power for starting and accelerating the car, and collecting and storing energy when the car is braking or idle. Supercapacitors can quickly recover and store energy when the car is decelerating, descending, and braking. It converts the excess irregular power generated by the car during operation into the charging energy of the battery to protect the safe and stable operation of the battery. When starting or accelerating First, the energy is transferred into the supercapacitor by the battery, and the supercapacitor can provide the required peak energy in a short time.

Among the domestic manufacturers involved in new energy vehicles, many manufacturers have chosen the technical route of supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. For example, the pure electric bus of Ankai Bus, the Mpe of Haima Parallel Pure Electric Car adopts the lithium-ion battery/supercapacitor power system; the 45 hybrid electric and pneumatic buses produced by Xiamen Golden Brigade of Xiamen Jinlong adopt 720 sets of global Leading supercapacitor manufacturer - Supercapacitor module of MAXWELL Company of the United States, the 45 hybrid bus was put into operation in Hangzhou in the second half of 2008, and the fuel saving effect was obviously praised. On April 22, 2009, MAXWELL announced that it had received orders for purchases of BOOSTCAP(R) supercapacitor modules from three of China's leading transportation bus manufacturers with a total value of approximately US$13.5 million. MAXWELL expects more than 150 hybrid buses to use the company's supercapacitors, which will reach more than 1,000 by the end of 2009.


4.4 Intelligent Distributed Grid System

Research and Analysis on Application of Super Capacitor in Smart Grid

Today's society has higher and higher requirements for the quality and safety and reliability of energy and power supply. The traditional large-grid power supply method cannot meet this requirement because of its own defects. A new type of power grid capable of integrating distributed power generation – micro-grid emerges as the times require. It can save investment, reduce energy consumption, improve system safety and flexibility, and is the future development direction. Capacitance plays an important role as an indispensable energy storage system in the microgrid. As a new type of energy storage device, supercapacitor has become one of the preferred devices for microgrid energy storage with its irreplaceable superiority. The microgrid consists of micro power supplies, loads, energy storage, and energy managers. The form of energy storage in the microgrid is: connected to the DC bus of the micro power supply, the feeder containing the important load or the AC bus of the microgrid. Among them, the first two can be called distributed energy storage, and the last one is called central energy storage. When connected to the grid, the power fluctuations in the microgrid are balanced by the large grid, and the energy storage is in the charging standby state. When the microgrid is switched from grid-connected operation to isolated network operation, the central storage energy is immediately activated to make up for the power shortage. The fluctuation of the load during the running of the microgrid or the fluctuation of the micro power supply can be balanced by the central energy storage or the distributed energy storage. Among them, there are two ways to balance the power fluctuation of the micro power supply, and the distributed energy storage and the micro power supply that needs energy storage are connected to a certain feeding line, or the energy storage is directly connected to the DC bus of the micro power supply.

1) Providing Short-term Power Supply

There are two typical modes of operation in the microgrid: under normal circumstances, the microgrid and the conventional distribution network are connected to the grid, which is called the grid-connected operation mode; when the grid fault is detected or the power quality is not met, the microgrid will be timely The grid is disconnected and operated independently, called the isolated mode. Microgrid often needs to absorb some of the active power from the conventional distribution network. Therefore, when the microgrid is switched from the grid-connected mode to the isolated mode, there will be power shortage. Installing the energy storage device will help the smooth transition of the two modes.

2) Used As An Energy Buffer Device

Due to the small scale of the microgrid, the inertia of the system is not large, and the network and load often fluctuate very much, which has an impact on the stable operation of the entire microgrid. We always expect high-efficiency generators (such as fuel cells) in the microgrid to always operate at its rated capacity. However, the load on the microgrid does not remain constant throughout the day. Instead, it fluctuates as the weather changes. In order to meet the peak load supply, peak load adjustment must be carried out using a fuel-and-gas peaking power plant. Due to the high fuel price, the operation cost of this method is too expensive. The supercapacitor energy storage system can effectively solve this problem. It can store the excess power of the power supply when the load is low, and feed back to the micro grid to adjust the power demand when the load is high. The high power density and high energy density of the supercapacitor make it the best choice for handling peak loads, and the use of supercapacitors requires only the storage of energy equivalent to the peak load.

3) Improving the Power Quality of Microgrid

The energy storage system plays an important role in improving the power quality of the microgrid. Through the inverter control unit, the reactive power and active power provided by the supercapacitor energy storage system to the user and the network can be adjusted, thereby achieving the purpose of improving the power quality. Because supercapacitors can quickly absorb and release high-power electric energy, it is very suitable to be applied to the power quality adjustment device of the micro-grid to solve some transient problems in the system, such as instantaneous power failure and voltage swell caused by system failure. Problems such as voltage dips, etc. At this time, supercapacitors are used to provide fast power buffering, absorbing or supplementing electric energy, and providing active power support for active or reactive power compensation to stabilize and smooth fluctuations in grid voltage.

4) Supercapacitors Are Indispensable for Smart Distributed Grid Systems

From the perspective of the future development of smart grids, intelligent distributed grid systems will be the mainstream of future grid systems. In order to realize the construction of the intelligent distributed power grid system, it is necessary to have a buffer device such as a distributed energy storage device and a central energy storage device. In the case of unstable energy production processes, a buffer is needed to store energy. In the case where the process of energy generation is stable and the demand is constantly changing, it is also necessary to use an energy storage device. A fuel cell is different from wind or solar energy, and it can continuously output stable electric energy as long as it has fuel. However, load demand varies greatly over time. If there is no energy storage device, the fuel cell will have to be large to meet the peak energy demand, and the cost is too high. By storing excess energy in the energy storage device, it is possible to provide the required peak energy through the energy storage device in a short time.

In distributed grid systems, the transient impact of power systems is inevitable, and the superior performance of supercapacitors can reduce the impact of transient impact on overall system performance. Therefore, in the future intelligent distributed grid system, the ultracapacitor bank energy storage system is indispensable.


Application Prospect of Super Capacitor in Smart Grid

The ideal supply voltage should be a pure sinusoidal waveform with nominal amplitude and frequency. However, due to the non-ideality of the supply voltage, the impedance of the line, the various disturbances experienced by the power supply system, the time-varying and nonlinearity of the load, etc., the supply voltage often presents a variety of power quality problems. Voltage-type power quality problems typically manifest as amplitude or waveform anomalies: voltage dips, three-phase imbalances, voltage fluctuations and flicker, harmonics, and frequency variations. Among all these power quality problems, the voltage sag and the short-term interruption of the voltage are particularly harmful to the electrical equipment. The voltage sag in just a few cycles may seriously affect the normal operation of the equipment. In developed countries in Europe and America, the economic loss of voltage sag can reach several million dollars, and the consequences of short-term voltage interruption are more serious. At present, voltage sag has risen to the most important power quality issue. In many complaints about power quality, user complaints caused by voltage sag accounted for more than 80% of the total complaints, while power quality problems caused by harmonics, switching operation and overvoltage were less than 20%. From another point of view, voltage sag and short-term interruptions are very harmful because they are too sensitive to many electrical equipment. Reducing the device's sensitivity to voltage dips and short-term interruptions and increasing its immunity to disturbances allows users to minimize losses and even avoid losses due to voltage dips and short interruptions.

At present, the solution mainly includes installing UPS power, multi-channel power supply, and installing DVR (dynamic voltage restorer). Among these measures, the cost of high-power UPS is too high, and multi-channel power supply cannot completely avoid the losses caused by voltage sag and short-term interruption. The research of DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer) has just started in China. From the perspective of improving the anti-interference ability of the load, different devices can be customized according to the needs of the user, which is called user power technology. User power technology is a new technology developed in the 1990s. It refers to the integration of high-power power electronics technology and distribution automation technology. Based on the user's requirements for power reliability and power quality, the user needs to configure the required power. The main products are solid-state circuit breaker + static compensator (STATCOM), dynamic voltage restorer (DVR, DynamicVoltageRestorer), etc., which can solve various kinds of disturbances caused by power system disturbance such as voltage sag, bump, and instantaneous interruption. problem.

Current technology products for voltage compensation mainly include DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer) and UPQC (Unified Power Quality Controller, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) and Active Filter (APF)). The world's first DVR (dynamic voltage restorer) device was successfully developed by Westinghouse, USA, and was put into operation in August 1997 at Duke Power Company. The APF is connected in parallel to the line, and the DVR is connected in series. The purpose of this is that the APF focuses on the management of current-type power quality problems, while the DVR focuses on voltage-type power quality issues. The two devices share the energy storage unit and the energy interface, and can be operated separately to achieve their own functions.

The current difficulty is that traditional energy storage devices are difficult to respond quickly to transient fluctuations in such electrical energy. By adding a super capacitor bank, the above technical problems can be solved more smoothly. Therefore, as a solution to the problem of power quality of users at the core port of the smart grid system, the device has broad market prospects.


4.5 Distributed Energy Storage System

Classification and Main Function of Electric Energy Storage System

Since the 1980s, the world power industry has begun to reform the power system, and its core is to realize the privatization of power companies and build a competitive power market. The electricity market is a complex of power generation, transmission, power supply, and electricity consumption in various parts of the power system.

In 1992, the Ministry of Power officially proposed to establish a domestic electricity market. With the further deepening of China's power system reform, the power industry has been reorganized into two major power grid companies and five major power generation companies. The National Electricity Regulatory Commission has been officially listed and the power market is gradually taking shape.

As a commodity, electrical energy quality has naturally become an important characteristic parameter. The general explanation given by the IEEE for power quality problems is: any abnormal phenomenon that causes electrical equipment to malfunction or malfunction during the power supply process. Power quality includes voltage quality, current quality, power quality and power quality, and involves reliability, continuity, and operability in terms of voltage, frequency, waveform, and three-phase balance.

At present, the United States Westinghouse Electric Company, Germany's Siemens, Japan's Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Sweden's ABB and other major power equipment manufacturers have produced the corresponding products. Voltage is one of the important indicators of power quality, and voltage interference affecting power quality mainly includes voltage offset, three-phase unbalance, voltage fluctuation and flicker, harmonic components of voltage, voltage drop and instantaneous power-off.

In the process of improving power quality, energy storage systems are playing an increasingly important role. The main functions of energy storage systems vary according to the size of the capacity.

(1) Large-scale energy storage system: It is mainly used as an adjustable power generation power source for power grids to control and regulate the power grid, such as frequency control, standby capacity control, dynamic fast response, peak-filling and leveling load, and prevention of system unwinding and Disintegration and so on.

(2) Medium-sized energy storage system: It is mainly used for high-power long-distance power transmission and transformation systems. Its main functions are to improve transmission stability, maintain voltage stability, suppress harmonics, and regulate load.

(3) Small energy storage system: mainly used to adjust power quality and improve power supply reliability. Its main functions include voltage control, voltage fluctuation and flicker suppression, voltage drop suppression, and instantaneous power failure.


4.6 Application of Super Capacitor in Military Equipment

In mobile communication base stations, satellite communication systems, and radio communication systems, large pulse discharge power is required, and the high power output characteristics of supercapacitors can meet the power requirements of these systems.

In addition, laser weapons also require high-power pulse power. If it is mobile, it must have a high-power generator set or a large-capacity battery. Its weight and volume will greatly reduce the mobility of the laser weapon. Supercapacitors are high power output and can be fully charged in a short period of time, making them the best power source for laser weapons. In addition, supercapacitors can also be used in tactical weapons (electromagnetic bombs) as a core component of a bomb generator (FCC).


4.7 Research and Analysis on the Application of Urban Rail Transit

Compared with roads, aviation and other modes of transportation, rail transit has significant advantages such as large volume, timing, safety, environmental protection and energy saving. Today, the world advocates the protection of the environment and the prevention of global warming. The advantages of environmental protection and energy conservation of rail transit have been paid more and more attention. In the future, the development of rail public transportation has become the consensus of all countries in the world.

Since the 1980s, with the rapid development of power electronics technology, AC traction drive technology has been applied to rail transit vehicles and has rapidly gained popularity. After the rail transit vehicle adopts the AC drive technology, the regenerative braking becomes the main braking method for the common braking of the train. Since the regenerative braking energy can be used by other trains in the same power supply section, this further reduces the train's The operation of energy consumption makes the advantages of rail transit in energy-saving operation more prominent. However, the premise of regenerative braking is that there must be enough load on the line to absorb the regenerative energy, otherwise it will easily cause the rebel-bred train's pantograph voltage to rise above the allowable value, causing the main circuit to open, resulting in regenerative braking failure. The phenomenon occurs. In recent years, with the development of energy storage technologies such as secondary batteries, flywheels, super capacitors (EDLC), superconductors, etc., how to use energy storage technology to solve train brake failure, improve train pantograph voltage, and save train energy It has received extensive attention from the world rail transit community.

At present, the regenerative braking energy absorbing device is often used in the ground traction substation to solve this problem. Among them, the resistance energy absorbing device is widely used. The device only consumes braking energy, and does not use energy, and only Solved the problem of increased network pressure but did not consider the problem of network pressure drop. If the energy storage device is used to store the braking energy, and the stored energy is released to the grid when the train starts to take off, and the DC grid current is reduced, the network voltage fluctuation problem will be solved.

Energy storage devices have a variety of energy storage methods, such as flywheel energy storage, battery energy storage and supercapacitor energy storage. Through the comparison of various energy storage methods, the vehicle super capacitor energy storage device is proposed to solve the above problems. Considering that the braking energy of the train is large, and the absorption capacity of the supercapacitor group is limited, in order to ensure the stability of the network voltage, an absorption scheme based on capacitance absorption and supplemented by resistance consumption is adopted. If the energy storage device can be successfully applied to urban rail transit, it will be able to create huge economic benefits on the basis of reasonable solution to the problem of network pressure fluctuation. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the urban rail transit energy storage device. 


4.8 Application of Super Capacitor in Motion Control

In modern high-rise buildings, the energy consumption of elevators is second only to air conditioning. In the past, the elevator used mechanical braking to dissipate this part of the energy in the form of heat, which was not only wasteful, but also excess heat caused the temperature of the machine room to rise, increasing the burden and cost of heat dissipation. If the excess kinetic energy and potential energy can be recovered, the energy actually consumed by the elevator system is limited to the loss and mechanical loss in the electrical energy conversion, including the frequency converter, the traction motor and its mechanical loss.

Therefore, the most urgent problem to be solved in elevator design and configuration is to fully consider energy-saving measures. The use of energy-saving and environmentally friendly elevators is an inevitable trend in the field of energy-efficient buildings in the future By analyzing the motion characteristics of the elevator system, we can find the direction of energy saving: at the end of the lifting process, the elevator often has brakes that generate huge braking current, which can be recycled; in addition, in the upper floors of the building, elevators and Elevator users have a lot of potential energy and can also recycle. Since the supercapacitor has excellent characteristics such as large current charge and discharge, energy can be recovered as an energy recovery device in the elevator system.

Supercapacitors can also be used in ventilation, air conditioning, water supply and drainage systems in the construction sector as start-up devices. In addition, supercapacitors can also be used in power stations, converters, and railway systems, including electromagnetic valve control systems, power distribution screens, and railway ramp control devices.

As one of the largest energy consumers of port machinery and equipment, port machinery such as bridges and bridges in the bridges require a lot of energy to carry goods, and the potential energy generated when falling is large, this part of the potential energy in traditional machinery The equipment has not been properly utilized. In addition to being in fixed port machinery, the same problems exist in mobile machinery. By using a supercapacitor, it is possible to realize the recovery of braking energy during the ascending process and the recovery of potential energy during the descending process.

The supercapacitor can be used as an auxiliary power source for the working power supply of the diesel engine starting system on the aircraft. It can provide the large current of the impact required by the aircraft engine in an instant, and can also solve the problem of insufficient power of the 422 series power supply vehicle to start the aircraft, so that the DC is activated at the moment of starting. The power car power generation system, especially the internal combustion engine, has a great protection effect.

In summary, supercapacitors can be used to optimize the transient response performance of major motion control systems to achieve energy savings goals.


Ⅴ Supercapacitors Currently Have Major Application Cases

5.1 Pure Electric Vehicle or Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Supercapacitor pure electric vehicles, charging every 2-3 miles at a designated charging station - both as a bus stop - charging, in just a few minutes, charging the supercapacitor under the bus seat finished. Supercapacitor buses can also extract energy from the brake system, which uses 40% less electricity than a trolleybus and consumes only one-third of the fuel.

Hybrid electric vehicles are powered by a multi-energy system, with a fuel-engine as the main power and a secondary power source as an auxiliary power. The biggest advantage of a hybrid electric vehicle is that it draws power from an energy storage system consisting of a battery and a supercapacitor during acceleration or climbing. When the vehicle's power demand is low, the energy storage system is charged. This not only increases the energy efficiency, but also the vehicle can pass the regenerative braking, the energy is re-recovered during deceleration, and the acceleration is paid, that is, the oil is saved and the pollution is reduced. Hybrid electric vehicles can save 30% to 50% of fuel and reduce pollution by 70% to 90%.

Supercapacitors


5.2 Low Temperature Start-up of Vehicles

The parallel application of the supercapacitor and the battery can improve the low temperature starting performance of the locomotive. Supercapacitors are of great importance in improving the starting performance of a car in cold weather (higher starting torque). At -20 °C, the performance of the battery is greatly reduced, it may not be able to start normally or need multiple starts to succeed, and the supercapacitor can only be ignited once in parallel with the battery at -40 °C, and its low temperature advantage is very obvious.

Supercapacitors


5.3 Energy Recovery of Railway Vehicles

In urban rail transit engineering, the braking mode of the vehicle is electric braking (regenerative braking) plus air braking. In operation, electric braking is the main, and air braking is supplemented. During the running of the train, due to the short distance between the stations, the train starts and brakes frequently, and the braking energy is considerable. Supercapacitors are used in rail vehicles. When the rail vehicle brakes, the braking energy is recovered and stored in the supercapacitor. When the vehicle accelerates again, the supercapacitor releases the energy, saving 30% of energy.

Supercapacitors


5.4 Aerospace

The supercapacitor provides explosive power for the aircraft opening door, with a service life of up to 25 years and 140,000 flight hours. It has passed the Airbus certification and was tested in 2004. The design product is BCAP0140. On the ground, during normal operation and emergency operation, the door must be opened. When flying, the door must be closed and locked, and the slide must be inflated when an emergency situation is needed.

Aerospace


5.5 Electric Forklift

Hybrid forklifts and electric forklifts nowadays mostly use supercapacitors as drive transmissions to transmit and receive peak power, energy recovery, fuel savings and longer working hours.

Electric Forklift


5.6 Crane

Utilizing a large-capacity supercapacitor, it can charge and discharge in a short period of high current, and can discharge a large current quickly at the time of starting, and can quickly charge a large current when it is lowered, and absorb energy, thereby saving energy and protecting the environment.

Crane



5.7 Solar Energy

Solar Energy

With the increasing scarcity of the earth's resources, the investment costs of basic energy are rising, and various safety and pollution hazards are ubiquitous. As a kind of “inexhaustible and inexhaustible”, solar energy is getting more and more attention. The combination of supercapacitors and solar energy has a very broad application prospect.


5.8 Electric Tool

Power tools generally need to be able to provide instantaneous high power and long life, and require fast charging. A power tool with a supercapacitor power supply can meet the performance requirements of the application. Supercapacitors can meet 100 cutting operations on a single charge. Moreover, this kind of equipment also requires no power supply outside the wire, which is convenient to carry.

Electric Tool


5.9 Electric Toys

In electronic toys, some often require instantaneous large currents, and the battery can not provide. Combining supercapacitors with batteries can solve this problem. Supercapacitors can also be used as power sources to power electronic toys, which not only reduces the cost of use but also reduces the quality.

Electric Toys


5.10 UPS(UninterrupTIblePowerSupply)

UPS(UninterrupTIblePowerSupply)

The function of the UPS is often determined in the first few seconds to a few minutes after the power failure or the instantaneous collapse of the grid voltage. The battery needs to provide power during this period. The shortcomings of the battery itself need regular maintenance and short life, so that the UPS is running. It is necessary to always check the state of the battery. In a data protection backup system, the time required by the UPS is relatively short. The advantages of supercapacitors are particularly pronounced, with output currents rising to hundreds of amps or even thousands of amps with almost no delay, and fast charging, energy storage in a short period of time, and 50,000 cycle life Do not need care for ten years, so that UPS is truly maintenance-free.


5.11 Telecommunications

The use of supercapacitors in the telecommunications industry is a novel application, combined with the PowerCache energy storage mode developed by supercapacitor electronic circuits, to create a device that mimics the operation of a 48V battery, which provides only a few seconds of backup power. . At the same time, it also bridges long-term power. This telecommunications product based on supercapacitor technology has excellent advantages - it can be operated for 10 years without maintenance, and it can be quickly recharged and has strong anti-interference ability.

Telecommunications


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