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Aug 30 2019

Types of Batteries and Battery Capacity

Catalog

Article Core

Electromotive Force (EMF)Charge and Discharge RateLithium BatteryGermany DIN Standard BatteryMemory Effect
Electric BatteryRated CapacityLife

Battery Types
America BCI Standard BatteryErase Memory

Terminology

Rated VoltageSelf-Discharge RateTypes Introduction

National Standards
Battery Storage

History
Open Circuit Voltage

Common Batteries
Example Expressions

Battery Common Sense
Note: Charge Time Calculation

Principle
Internal ResistanceDry BatteryChina Standard BatteryNormal Charge

Batteries Selections

Technique Parameters
ImpedanceLead Acid BatteryJapan JIS Standard BatteryQuick Charge

Batteries Recycle

Even the best battery will slowly lose capacity till the end does not work. Why is this? How does your battery initially store such a large amount of charge? This video will give your answer how batteries work and store electricity.

  Terminology 

Battery means a space in a cup, tank or other container or composite container containing an electrolyte solution and a metal electrode to generate electrical current, in a word, a device capable of converting chemical energy into electrical energy, and it has a positive electrode and a negative electrode. With the development of science and technology, batteries are broadly referred to as small devices that generate electrical energy, such as solar cells. The technique parameters of the battery mainly include electromotive force, capacity, specific energy and resistance. By using the battery as an energy source, it is possible to obtain a current having a stable voltage, a stable current, a stable power supply for a long time, and little influence from the outside, and the battery has a simple structure, and is convenient to carry, easy to operate in charge and discharge, free from influence of climate and temperature. Having stable and reliable performance, it plays a huge role in all aspects of modern social life.

battery

  History 

In 1746, Mason Brock of the Leyden University in the Netherlands invented the "Leyden Jar" for collecting electric charge. He saw that the electricity that was hard to collect but easily disappeared in the air, he wanted to find a way to save electricity. One day, he hung in the air with a barrel, connected with a motor and a barrel, and a copper wire was taken from the barrel and immersed in a glass bottle filled with water. His assistant held the glass bottle in hand, while Mason Brock swayed the motor from the side. At this time his assistant accidentally touched the  the barrel and suddenly felt a strong electric shock and shouted. Mason Brock then exchanged with the assistant, letting the assistant shake the motor, and meanwhile, he took the water bottle in one hand and touched the gun by another hand. The battery was in embryo, that is Leyden jar.

In 1780, the Italian anatomist Luigi Galvani, while doing frog anatomy, held different metal instruments in both hands, accidentally touching the frog's thighs at the same time. The muscles of the frog's legs immediately twitched as if they got an electric shock. If only a metal instrument is used to touch the frog, there is no such reaction. Galvani believed that this phenomenon occurred because of a kind of electricity generated inside the animal's body, which he called "bio-electricity."

The discovery of Galvani has aroused great interest among physicists who are competing to repeat the frog experiment in an attempt to find a way to generate electricity. The Italian physicist Volt said after several experiments: The concept of "bio-electricity" is not correct. The reason why the muscles of the frog can produce electricity is probably that some kind of liquid in the muscle is working. To demonstrate his point of view, Volt immersed two different metal sheets in various solutions for testing.

In 1799, Volt dipped a zinc plate and a tin plate in salt water and found that there was current flowing through the wires connecting the two metals. Therefore, he put a lot of fluffed cloth or paper sheets soaked in salt water between the zinc sheets and the silver sheets. When touched both ends by hand, he felt strong current stimulation. As a result, it was found that as long as one of the two metal sheets chemically reacted with the solution, current could be generated between these metal sheets.

In this way, Volt succeeded in making the world's first battery, the Volt Stack, it is actually a battery pack in series. It became the power source for early electrical experiments and telegraph machines.

In 1836, Daniel of the United Kingdom improved the "Volt Stack". He used dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte to solve the problem of battery polarization, and produced the first zinc-copper battery that was not polarized and could maintain a balanced current. But these batteries have a problem that the voltage decreases with the use of time.

When the voltage drops after the battery is used for a period of time, it can be given a reverse current to make the battery voltage rise. Because this battery can be recharged, it can be used repeatedly.

In 1860, GeorgeLeclanche, a French, also invented the predecessor of the world's widely used battery (carbon-zinc battery). Its negative electrode is an alloy rod of zinc and mercury (volt battery with zinc negative electrode, which proves to be one of the best metals for the negative electrode material), and its positive electrode was a porous cup with a mixture of crushed manganese oxide and carbon, in addition, a carbon rod was inserted into the mixture as a current collector. Both electrodes were immersed in an ammonium chloride solution (as an electrolytic solution). This is called a wet battery. This battery was simple and cheap, so it was replaced by dry battery till 1880. The negative electrode is modified into a zinc can (the outer case of the battery), and the electrolyte becomes a paste rather than a liquid, which is basically the carbon zinc battery that we used today.

In 1887, the Englishman Hellerson invented the earliest dry battery. The electrolyte of the dry battery was paste-like, did not leak, and was easy to carry, and thus had been widely used.

In 1890, Thomas Edison invented a rechargeable iron-nickel battery.

button cells

  Principle 

In chemical batteries, the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy is the result of spontaneous chemical reactions such as oxidation and reduction inside the battery, and this reaction is carried out on two electrodes. The negative electrode active material is composed of an active metal such as zinc, cadmium or lead, and hydrogen or a hydrocarbon. The positive electrode active material is composed of metal oxides such as manganese dioxide, lead dioxide, and nickel oxide, oxygen or air, halogens and salts thereof, oxyacids and salts thereof, and the like. The electrolyte is a material having good ionic conductivity, such as an aqueous solution of an acid, a base, a salt, an organic or inorganic nonaqueous solution, a molten salt or a solid electrolyte.

When the external circuit is disconnected, there is a potential difference (open-circuit voltage) between the two poles, but there is no current, and the chemical energy stored in the battery is not converted into electric energy. When the external circuit is closed, a current flows through the external circuit under the action of the potential difference between the two electrodes, at the same time, inside the battery, due to the absence of free electrons in the electrolyte, the transfer of charge is accompanied by oxidation or reduction reaction of the interface between the bipolar active material and the electrolyte, and migration of the reactants and reaction products. The transfer of charge in the electrolyte is accomplished by the migration of ions.

The normal charge transfer and mass transfer process inside the battery is important to ensure normal output of electrical energy. When charging, the direction of the internal power transmission and mass transfer process is exactly opposite to the discharge, and the electrode reaction must be reversible to ensure the normal mass transfer and transmission process in the opposite direction. Therefore, the reversible electrode reaction is a necessary condition for constituting a battery. In fact, when current flows through the electrode, the electrode potential deviates from the thermodynamically balanced electrode potential. This phenomenon is called polarization. The greater the current density (the current passing through the unit electrode area), the more the polarization, there, polarization is one of the important causes of battery energy loss.

Note: The cause of polarization

The polarization caused by the resistance of each part of the battery is called ohmic polarization.

The polarization caused by the blockage of the charge transfer process in the electrode-electrolyte interface layer is called activation polarization.

 The polarization caused by the slow mass transfer process in the electrode-electrolyte interface layer is called concentration polarization. The method of reducing this polarization is to increase the electrode reaction area, reduce the current density, increase the reaction temperature, and improve the catalytic activity of the electrode surface.

 

  Technique Parameters 

1)electromotive force (EMF)

The electromotive force is the difference between the equilibrium electrode potentials of the two electrodes. Taking a lead-acid battery as an example, E=Ф+0-Ф-0+RT/F*In(αH2SO4/αH2O).

E: EMF

Ф+0: Positive electrode standard electrode potential, which is 1.690 V.

Ф-0: Negative electrode standard electrode potential, which is 1.690 V.

R: General gas constant, which is 8.314.

T: Ambient temperature.

F: Faraday constant, its value is 96485.

αH2SO4: Sulfuric acid activity, is related to the concentration of sulfuric acid.

αH2O: Water activity, is related to sulfuric acid concentration.

As can be seen from the above formula, the standard electromotive force of the lead-acid battery is 1.690-(-0.356)=2.046V, so the nominal voltage of the battery is 2V. The electromotive force of a lead-acid battery is related to temperature and sulfuric acid concentration.

2) rated capacity 

Under the conditions specified by the design (such as temperature, discharge rate, termination voltage, etc.), the minimum capacity that the battery should be able to discharge, in amps per hour, is indicated by the symbol C. The capacity is greatly affected by the discharge rate, so the discharge rate is often indicated by Arabic numerals in the lower right corner of the letter C, such as C20 = 50, indicating a capacity of 50 amps per hour at a 20 time rate. The theoretical capacity of the battery can be accurately determined from the amount of the electrode active material in the battery reaction formula and the electro chemical equivalent of the active material calculated according to Faradays law. Due to the side reactions that may occur in the battery and the special needs of the design, the actual capacity of the battery is often lower than the theoretical capacity.

3)rated voltage

The typical operating voltage of a battery at room temperature, also known as the nominal voltage. It is a reference when selecting different types of batteries. The actual operating voltage of the battery is equal to the difference between the balanced electrode potentials of the positive and negative electrodes with different applying conditions. It is only related to the type of electrode active material, regardless of the amount of active substance. The battery voltage is essentially a DC voltage, but under certain special conditions, the phase change of the metal crystal or some phase-forming film caused by the electrode reaction will cause a slight fluctuation of the voltage. This phenomenon is called noise. The amplitude of the fluctuation is small but the frequency range is very wide, so it can be distinguished from the self-excited noise in the circuit.

4) open circuit voltage

The terminal voltage of the battery in the open state is called the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage of the battery is equal to the difference between the positive electrode potential  and the negative electrode potential when the battery is open ( no current flows through the two poles). The open circuit voltage of the battery is expressed by V, that is, V on = Ф + - Ф -, where Ф +, Ф - are the positive and negative electrode potentials of the battery, respectively. The open circuit voltage of a battery is generally less than its electromotive force. This is because the electrode potential established by the two poles of the battery in the electrolyte solution is usually not the equilibrium electrode potential but the stable electrode potential. Generally, it can be approximated that the open circuit voltage of the battery is equivalent to the electromotive force of the battery.

5) internal resistance

The internal resistance of the battery refers to the resistance that the current is subjected to when passing through the inside of the battery. It includes ohmic internal resistance and polarization internal resistance, in addition, polarization internal resistance includes electrochemical polarization internal resistance and concentration polarization internal resistance. Due to the internal resistance, the operating voltage of the battery is always smaller than the electromotive force or open circuit voltage of the battery.

The internal resistance of the battery is not constant and changes over time during charging and discharging because the composition of the active material, the concentration and temperature of the electrolyte are constantly changing. The ohmic internal resistance follows Ohms law, and the polarization internal resistance increases with increasing current density, but is not linear.

Internal resistance is an important indicator to determine the performance of the battery. It directly affects the operating voltage, operating current, output energy and power of the battery. For the battery, the smaller the internal resistance, the better.

6)impedance

The battery has a large electrode-electrolyte interface area, so the battery can be equivalent to a simple series circuit of a large capacitor and a small resistor and inductor. However, the actual situation is much more complicated, especially the impedance of the battery varies with time and DC level, and the measured impedance is only valid for a certain measurement state.

7) charge and discharge rate

It expressed by two ways, time rate and magnification. The time rate is the charge and discharge rate indicated by the charge and discharge time, and is numerically equal to the number of hours obtained by dividing the rated capacity (A·h) of the battery by the predetermined charge and discharge current (A). Magnification is the reciprocal of the rate of time. The discharge rate of the primary battery is represented by the time at which a a certain fixed resistance discharged to the termination voltage, and the discharge rate has a large impact on battery performance.

8) life

Storage life refers to the maximum time allowed to store between the time the battery is manufactured and the time it is used. The total term including the storage period and the usage period is called the expiration date of the battery. The life of the storage battery is divided into dry storage life and wet storage life. The cycle life is the maximum number of charge and discharge cycles that the battery can reach under the specified conditions. The system of charge and discharge cycle test must be specified at the specified cycle life, including charge and discharge rate, discharge depth and ambient temperature range.

9) self-discharge rate

The rate at which the battery loses its capacity during storage. The capacity lost by self-discharge during unit storage time is expressed as a percentage of the battery capacity before storage.

 

  Common Batteries 

1)Dry battery

The dry battery is also called a manganese-zinc battery. The so-called dry battery is relative to a voltaic battery, and manganese zinc refers to its raw material than other materials such as silver oxide batteries, nickel cadmium batteries. The voltage of the manganese-zinc battery is 1.5V. Dry batteries consume chemical raw materials to generate electricity. Its voltage is not high, and the continuous current that can be generated cannot exceed 1 A.

2)Lead acid battery

The storage battery is one of the most widely used batteries. Use a glass tank or plastic tank, fill with sulfuric acid, and then insert two lead plates, one connected to the positive pole of the charger, and another connected to the negative pole of the charger, after a dozen hours of charging, a storage battery is formed. It has a voltage of 2 volts between the positive and negative electrodes. The advantage of it is that it can be used repeatedly. In addition, because of its small internal resistance, it can provide a large current. When it is used to power the car's engine, the an instantaneous current can up to 20 A. When the battery is being charged, the electric energy is stored, and when it is discharged, the chemical energy is converted into electric energy.

3)Lithium battery

A battery with lithium as the negative electrode. It is a new high-energy battery developed after the 1960s.

The advantage of the lithium battery is that the single battery has high voltage, large specific energy, long storage life (up to 10 years), good temperature performance ( it can be used at -40 to 150 °C ). The disadvantage is that it is expensive and poor safety. In addition, its voltage lag and safety issues need to be improved. The development of power batteries and new cathode materials, especially the development of lithium iron phosphate materials, has greatly contributed to the development of lithium batteries.

 

  Battery Types 

The battery is divided into a disposable battery and a rechargeable battery. Disposable batteries have different technical resources and standards in different countries and regions. Therefore, many models have been produced before the development of standard models by international organizations, and most of these battery models are named by manufacturers or relevant national departments, thus forming different naming system. According to the size of the battery, China's alkaline battery models can be divided into No. 1, No. 2, No. 5, No. 7, No. 8, No. 9, and NV; the corresponding American alkaline models are D, C, AA, AAA, N, AAAA, PP3 and so on. In China, some batteries will use the American naming method. According to the IEC standard, the complete battery model description should be: chemical, shape, size, arranged in order.

AAA Battery

1) AAAA model is rare, and the standard AAAA (flat head) battery has a height of 41.5 ± 0.5 mm and a diameter of 8.1 ± 0.2 mm.

2) AAA model batteries are more common. The standard AAA (flat head) battery has a height of 43.6±0.5mm and a diameter of 10.1±0.2mm.

3) The AA model battery is well known. Digital cameras and electric toys are all using AA batteries. The standard AA (flat head) battery has a height of 48.0±0.5mm and a diameter of 14.1±0.2mm.

4) A model is rare. This series is usually used as the battery core in the battery pack. The nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries of old cameras are almost all 4/5A or 4/5SC batteries. The standard A (flat head) battery has a height of 49.0 ± 0.5 mm and a diameter of 16.8 ± 0.2 mm.

5) The SC model is also uncommon. It is generally the battery core inside the battery pack. It can be seen on power tools and cameras as well as imported equipment. The standard SC (flat head) battery has a height of 42.0±0.5mm and a diameter of 22.1±0.2mm.

6) The C model is equal to the No.2 battery of China. The standard C (flat head) battery has a height of 49.5 ± 0.5 mm and a diameter of 25.3 ± 0.2 mm.

7) The D model is equivalent to the No. 1 battery of China. It is widely used in civil, military, and special DC power supplies. The standard D (flat head) battery has a height of 59.0±0.5mm and a diameter of 32.3±0.2mm.

8) The N model is not common. The standard N (flat head) battery has a height of 28.5 ± 0.5 mm and a diameter of 11.7 ± 0.2 mm.

9) F batteries, used in electric mopeds, and new generations of power batteries have a tendency to replace lead-acid maintenance-free batteries, which are generally used as battery cells. The standard F (flat head) battery has a height of 89.0 ± 0.5 mm and a diameter of 32.3 ± 0.2 mm.

batteries

A. China standard battery

Take the battery 6-QAW-54a as an example

1. 6 means consisting of 6 single cells, each cell voltage is 2V, that is, the rated voltage is 12V.

2. Q indicates the use of the battery, Q is the battery for starting the car, M is the battery for the motorcycle, JC is the battery for the ship, HK is the battery for the aviation, D is the battery for the electric vehicle, and F is the valve-controlled battery.

3. A and W indicate the type of battery: A indicates a dry-type battery, and W indicates a maintenance-free battery. If not marked clearly, it is a normal type battery.

4. 54 indicates that the rated capacity of the battery is 54Ah (full-charged battery, discharged at a normal temperature at a rate of 20h discharge current for 20h battery output).

5. The corner mark a indicates the first improvement to the original product, and the corner mark b indicates the second improvement, and so on.

Note:

1) Add D after the model to indicate good low temperature start performance, such as 6-QA-110D

2) After the model, add HD to indicate high anti-vibration type.

3) After the model, add DF to indicate low temperature reverse loading, such as 6-QA-165DF

 

B. Japan JIS standard battery

In 1979, the Japanese standard battery model was represented by N of Japan Nippon. The latter figure is the size of the battery compartment, which is expressed by the approximate rated capacity of the battery, such as NS40ZL:

1. N indicates Japanese JIS standard.

2. S means miniaturization, that is, the actual capacity is smaller than 40 Ah, which is 36Ah.

3. Z indicates better starting discharge performance under the same size.

4. L indicates that the positive pole is at the left end and R indicates that the positive pole is at the right end, such as NS70R.(Note: from the direction away from the battery pole pile)

5. S indicates that the pole pile terminal is thicker than the same capacity battery, such as NS60SL. (Note: Generally, the positive and negative poles of the battery have different diameters to avoid confusing the polarity of the battery.)

Li-ion battery

By 1982, the Japanese standard battery model was implemented according to the new standard, such as 38B20L (equivalent to NS40ZL):

1.38 represents the performance parameters of the battery. The higher the number, the more energy the battery can store.

2. B represents the width and height code of the battery. The combination of width and height of the battery is represented by one of the eight letters (A to H), and the closer the character is to H, the larger the width and height values of the battery.

3. 20 indicates that the length of the battery is approximately 20 cm.

4. L indicates the position of the positive terminal, and the positive terminal is at the right end marked R and the positive terminal is at the left end marked L as viewed from the battery pole.

 

C. German DIN standard battery

Take the battery 544 34 as an example:

1. The first number 5 indicates that the rated capacity of the battery is below 100 Ah; the first 6 indicates that the battery capacity is between 100 Ah and 200 Ah; the first 7 indicates that the rated capacity of the battery is above 200 Ah.

According to it, 544 34 battery rated capacity is 44 Ah; 610 17 MF battery rated capacity is 110 Ah; 700 27 battery rated capacity is 200 Ah.

2. The two numbers after the capacity indicate the battery size group number.

3. MF stands for maintenance-free type.

D. America BCI standard battery

Take the battery 58 430 (12V 430A 80min) as an example:

1. 58 indicates the battery size group number.

2. 430 indicates a cold start current of 430 A.

3. 80 min indicates that the battery reserve capacity is 80 min.

4. The American standard battery can also be expressed as follows: 78-600, 78 indicates the battery size group number, and 600 indicates the cold start current is 600 A.

 Cold start current (CCA): The minimum current in a particular circumstance that can be obtained at -17.8 °C and -28.9 °C. This indicator relates the battery’s important parameters such as engine displacement, compression ratio, temperature, start-up time, technical state of the engine and electrical system, and minimum operating voltage for starting and ignition. It refers to the minimum current that the battery can supply when the fully charged 12V battery is within 30s, and the terminal voltage drops to 7.2V. The cold start rating gives the total current value.

② Reserve capacity (RC): The approximate time that the car can operate by igniting the battery at night and providing minimum circuit load when the charging system is not working, can be specifically stated as: fully charged 12V battery, at the condition of 25±2 °C, the discharge time of the battery terminal voltage drops to 10.5 ± 0.05V with discharging at a constant current of 25 A.

 

  National Standards 

The IEC (International Electrical Commission) standard, is a worldwide standardization organization composed of national electrotechnical committees to promote standardization in the world of electrical and electronic fields.

Nickel/cadmium battery national standard GB/T11013_1996GB/T18289_2000.

Nickel-hydrogen battery national standard is GB/T15100_1994GB/T18288_2000. 

Lithium battery national standard is GB/T10077_1998YD/T998_1999, GB/T18287_2000.

In addition, the common battery standard also has JIS C standard and the battery standard established by SANYOPANASONIC company.

The general battery industry is based on SANYO or Panasonic standards.

 

  Battery Common Sense 

1) Normal charge

Different batteries have their own characteristics. Users must charge batteries according to the manufacturers instructions, because proper and reasonable charging is good for extending battery life.

2) Quick charge

Some automated smart quick chargers only indicate that they are full 90% when the indicator signal changes. The charger will automatically switch to slow charging to fully charge the battery. It is best for the user to fully charge the battery before use, otherwise it will shorten the use time.

3) effect

If the battery is a nickel-cadmium battery, without completely charged or discharged for a long time, which will leave marks in the battery and reduce the battery capacity. This phenomenon is called battery memory effect.

4) Erase memory

Discharge the battery and then refill it completely to erase battery memory effect, in addition, following the instructions in the instructions to control the time and repeat charging and discharging two or three times.

5) Battery storage

Lithium batteries can be stored in a clean, dry and ventilated room with an ambient temperature of -5 °C to 35 °C and a relative humidity of not more than 75%. Avoid contact with corrosive substances and keep away from fire and heat sources. Battery power is maintained at 30% to 50% of nominal capacity, and storage batteries should be better charged every 6 months.

battery symbol

Note: charge time calculation

1) When the charging current is less than or equal to 5% of the battery capacity:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (mAH) ×1.6 ÷ charging current (mA)

2) When the charging current is more than 5% of the battery capacity, and is less than or equal to 10%:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (mAH) × 1.5% ÷ charge current (mA)

3) When the charging current is more than 10% of the battery capacity and less than or equal to 15%:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (mAH) × 1.3÷ charging current (mA)

4) When the charging current is more than 15% of the battery capacity and less than or equal to 20%:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (mAH) × 1.2÷ charging current (mA)

5) When the charging current is more than 20% of the battery capacity:

Charging time (hours) = battery capacity (mAH) × 1.1 ÷ charging current (mA)

 

  Batteries Selections 

1. Purchase brand battery products, because the quality of these products is guaranteed.

2. According to the requirements of the electrical appliance, select the applicable battery type and size.

3. Pay attention to check the battery production date and expire time.

4. Pay attention to check the appearance of the battery, choosing a battery with exquisite packaging, neat appearance, clean, no leakage.

5. When buying an alkaline zinc-manganese battery, look for the mark of ALKALINE or LR.

6. Since the mercury in the battery is harmful to the environment, to protect the environment, the battery with the words “no mercury”, “0% mercury” and something like that should be noticed.

 

  Batteries Recycle 

There are three types of dealing with waste batteries that are commonly used in the world: solidified and buried, stored in waste mines, and recycled.

1. Solidified and buried in waste mines.

For example, a factory in France extracts nickel and cadmium, and then uses nickel for steelmaking, and cadmium is reused for battery production. The rest of the waste batteries are generally shipped to specialized toxic and hazardous landfills, but this method is expensive and make land waste, in addition, there are many useful materials that can be used as raw materials.

2. Re-use

(1) Heat treatment

(2) Wet processing

(3) Vacuum heat treatment

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6 comments

    • Joey Chan on 2019-9-24 17:37:22

    Hola, I will charge the macbook when it running 40%, will it affect the battery life?

      • author on 2019-9-25 11:48:29
        author

      Re:

      In my view, it affects battery life a little, because most of internal battery is lithium battery, but not a nickel-hydrogen battery in the past. Moreover, a large number of research results show that the battery cycle life is longer when it charged at 40% electricity than it charged low even at 0%, that is, not to wait until the battery is depleted and then recharge.

    • Jacky on 2019-9-24 17:53:45

    To that I would add lithium battery is a kind of battery made of lithium metal or lithium alloy as negative electrode material, using non-aqueous electrolyte solution, the earliest lithium battery was invented by Edison, using the following reaction: Li+MnO2= LiMnO2, this reaction is redox reaction. Because lithium metal chemical characteristics are very active, making lithium metal processing, preservation, and usage must meet very high environmental requirements. Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium metal batteries are usually not rechargeable and contain lithium in the generic state. Lithium ion batteries do not contain metallic states of lithium and are rechargeable.

    • Jade H on 2019-10-16 15:25:50

    Your note is not bad, but I think you can add thermal runaway and thermal runaway propagation to make it more referential. Thermal runaway, refers to the phenomenon of overheating, fire and explosion caused by exothermic chain reaction of single battery. Thermal runaway propagation, refers to the thermal runaway of the single battery or single battery unit in the battery package or system, and triggers the thermal runaway phenomenon of the battery in the adjacent or other parts of the battery system.

    • Belle on 2019-10-22 16:56:48

    The battery is a device that converts the chemical energy stored in the fuel directly into electric energy through electrochemical redox reaction. The electron is transferred to the battery electrode through electrolytes, while the ordinary non-electrochemical oxidation reaction, such as metal rust, fuel combustion can directly transfer electrons to generate energy. Because there is no "Carnot Cycle" limit when the battery converts chemical energy into electric energy, the energy conversion efficiency is higher than that of non-electrochemical redox reaction.

    • Tina W Hathaway on 2019-10-28 13:39:36

    Hi, I see the formula written here to calculate the charge and discharge time, before that, I have a question, how to judge the remaining battery capacity. At present, my judgment method is to read the current battery voltage through battery monitor ic, and then look at the maximum and minimum voltage to judge the remaining power.

      • author on 2019-11-11 17:36:48
        author

      Re:

      It should be more accurate to measure the charge-discharge curve and then look up the table. If the charger is inserted or not, the deviation of the indication can also be reduced by software correction.

    • Penny Chan on 2019-11-11 17:38:54

    Good note, keep on!!!

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